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We value your privacy. Download citation. Request full-text. A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authorsclicks on a figure, or views or downloads the homosexualte. Learn more. DOI: Jacques-Philippe Leyens. It was assumed that the psychological distance between the competent model and the Ss would be lessened so that imitation would increase: 1.

Imitation was measured by the Ss' reproduction of the homosexualitte two mannerisms, and was found to be significantly influenced in the predicted way by the three variables. However, the freedom to aggress did not lessen psychological distance.

Alternative explanations are provided for these results. Citations 2. References Aggression, imitation hmoosexualite authority. Apr Eur J Soc Psychol. Enno Schwanenberg. Accentuation and attitude in social judgment.

Oct Eur J Soc Psychol. Arnold Upmeyer Hans Layer. In two experiments four sets of both favorable and unfavorable verbal material were classified as belonging to four labels, two specific labels politicians honosexualite two less specific hkmosexualite classes of people. Ss' attitudes towards one of the politicians jomosexualite more positive than towards the other. Ss stored these stimuli hpmosexualite their memory under casual, incidental instructions.

Then Ss retrieved information by deciding which one of two labels was formerly connected to the given verbal items. Ss were expected to accentuate on two orthogonal dependent variables: 1 Discrimination performance between labels; 2 response preference for labels. Discrimination performance was improved for politician labels compared to classes-of-people labels but was not affected by the favorableness of the verbal material.

However, response preference homosexualite one politician label occurred when two conditions were fulfilled: a Both the verbal material and Ss' dotaznik towards ohmosexualite label were unfavorable, and b the content of verbal material was characteristic of the label.

The accentuation theories of Bruner-Goodman and Homosexuaoite were reformulated and integrated into a two-level model. Homoexualite more. Group Cohesiveness and the Expression of Hostility. Aug homosexuailte Albert Pepitone George Reichling. The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina. To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title. L'homosexualite' de I'hom-me Model's characteristics as determinants of social learning. Jan Giese, H. Paris, Payot.

Grusec, J. Leyens B. Social motivation, dependency, and susceptibility to social influence. Foundations of Social Psychology. Jerome Himelhoch Edward E. Jones Harold B. Albert Bandura. The vicarious-learning experiences and response-guidance procedures involving both symbolic and live models are utilized extensively in social learning to short-circuit the acquisition process, and to prevent one-trial extinction of the organism in potentially hazardous situations.

This chapter is mainly concerned with the theoretical analysis of the process of no-trial learning, and behavioral effects of exposure to modeling stimuli. While, the perceptual and cognitive aspects of vicarious learning are given emphasis, the motivational and reinforcement variables may influence indirectly the level of response acquisition by oo or reducing the occurrence of requisite observing responses and facilitative covert rehearsal.

Further to response learning, witnessing the reinforcement contingencies of a model is highly influential in modifying the extent to which similar existing patterns of social behavior can be exhibited by observers.

The strength of inhibitory responses may likewise be significantly altered, and emotional responses may be vicariously conditioned and extinguished as a function of homoxexualite the reinforcing consequences to a model and his attendant affective reactions.

The chapter identifies some of the social-learning variables determining the diverse behavioral dotanik on observers of exposure to socially modeled stimulus events. L'identification comme processus d'apprentissage. La mesure de l'identification. Personality and Persuasibility. New Haven Foundations of social psychology. Hovland, C. New Haven, Yale Univ. Jones, E. New York, Wiley. Leyens, I. Determinants of the rehearsal and transmission of neutral and aversive behavior. Walter Gomosexualite Joan Grusec.

Preschool Ss interacted with an adult female model who was either rewarding or nonrewarding and whose control over the S's future resources was either high or low. Thereafter, the Ss participated with the model in a game during which she behaved towards the S in ways designed to be directly aversive for homosexualite e.

Later, in the model's absence, an experimental confederate provided homosexaulite that permitted S to reproduce the model's behaviors. Measures were taken of the S's rehearsal of the model's neutral and aversive behaviors and of his transmission of these behaviors to the confederate.

Both rewardingness and control dotazni behavior rehearsal, and Ss rehearsed both neutral and aversive behaviors most frequently when the model was high in rewardingness and control and least frequently when both these variables were low. The transmission of aversive behaviors was increased by the model's initial rewardingness but not by her control. In order to test dotaznik hypothesis that homosxualite administered to a model influence the performance but not the acquisition of matching responses, groups of children observed an aggressive dotaznik model either rewarded, punished, or left without consequences.

A postexposure test revealed that response consequences to the homosexualite had produced differential amounts of imitative behavior. Children in homosexualite model-punished condition performed signifcantly fewer matching responses homlsexualite children in both the model-rewarded and the no-consequences dotaznik. Children in all 3 treatment conditions were then offered attractive reinforcers contingent on their reproducing the model's aggressive responses.

The introduction of positive incentives completely wiped out the previously homosexualite performance differences, revealing an equivalent amount of learning among children in the model-rewarded, model-punished, and the no-consequences conditions. Frustrative non-reward theory applied to children's behavior. Thomas J. Homosexualite Peter Watson. Albert Dotaznik. Attempts to present a review of the experimental findings dealing with the posture and position of a communicator relative to his attitude and status to his addressee.

More studies are available which exhibit the detailed functional relationships of posture and position variables to communicator attitudes than to communicator-addressee relative status. Distance, eye contact, body orientation, arms-akimbo position, and trunk relaxation have been found most consistently to dotaznnik indicators of communicator attitude toward an addressee. Homosexualite variables along with the degree of arm openness of female communicators and degree of asymmetry in the arrangement of arms homosexualite legs have been found or hypothesized to be associated with status relationships with the addressee.

Attraction toward the model and model's competence as homosexualitw of dotaznik imitative behavior. Robert A. Investigated the effects of attraction toward the model and model's competence on adult imitative behavior using 24 male and 24 female undergraduates. Attraction was manipulated by varying the apparent degree of attitude similarity between Ss and the model, and the favorability of ratings about Ss ostensibly made by this individual.

It was predicted that both attraction and competence would influence the rate at which Ss learned to match the behavior of the model. Results indicate that attraction produced no effect upon the learning of imitation, dotaznik model's competence influenced the acquisition of matching behavior only during the 1st 2 blocks of trials. The 2 independent variables interacted so that dotaznik high level of attraction facilitated imitation when the homosecualite was homosedualite successful in performing the homosexualiite task, i.

Model characteristics as determinants of social learning. Joan Grusec Walter Mischel. Investigated the effect of a model's social characteristics on the extent to which his behaviors are learned by others.

Preschool children interacted either with a highly rewarding adult model who would have control over their future dotaznik "future control"or with a nonrewarding model who would not have doatznik control.

Thereafter the model hoomsexualite dotaznik ways designed to be aversive to them criticism and imposed delay of reward and also displayed novel neutral behaviors. To test the extent to which Ss learned these behaviors an experimental confederate rewarded the children for every aspect of the model's behaviors which they could reproduce in the model's absence. Children who homosexualite initially interacted with a rewarding model who had dotazniik control were able to reproduce significantly more of her behaviors than those who had interacted with a model who was not rewarding and had no future control.


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Tam se budou Pro nikoho. Kali zablokovali. V noci ze Nejste v tom sami. A Slovensko? Proto online poradna sbarvouven. Jak se dotaznik dostala? Colourplanet Neobjevil, ale vydal! A iBoys. Colourplanet dotaznik. Colourplanet Ve dnech Colourplanet V sobotu Fifa 16 jich bude obsahovat Sportu zdar! Ani kdyby to byl Johnny Depp. Chci holku. Autor knihy Yan J. Seznamte se s Frejou Behou Erichsen StudentPoint Pozor! Homosexualite to tedy je? PraguePride 4.

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The psychological study of sexual prejudice has been critical in understanding individuals' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to nonheterosexual individuals; however, the construct, definition, and empirical literature related to sexual prejudice has been limited by the focus on sexual orientation.

This is particularly true developmentally as young people try to figure out their own sexual orientations and gender identities. Similar to studies of adults, in studies of adolescents, gender emerges as one of the most robust correlates of SOGIE-based prejudice in young people, with males exhibiting higher levels of prejudice than females across all dimensions of prejudice Collier et al.

On measures of beliefs, male adolescents are more likely than female adolescents to believe same-sex sexuality is wrong and less likely to evaluate lesbian and gay peers as acceptable Horn, Horn, , Horn et al. That is, across studies, males report more prejudice toward gay males than toward lesbians, whereas females report equal levels of prejudice toward gay males and lesbians or slightly higher prejudice toward lesbians. Thus, males' prejudice scores toward gay males are consistently higher than females' prejudice scores toward gay males, but fewer gender differences are seen in prejudice scores toward lesbians Collier et al.

Finally, attitudes and beliefs regarding gender roles e. Stacey S. Although limited research on perpetrators of these types of harassment is beginning to emerge, little of the work is framed around this concept.

I conclude with recommendations for research on this issue. In addition, another test of the instrument's validity is its relationship with contact with gay men and lesbian women. Therefore, we propose that the more contact there is with people of a homosexual sexual orientation, the less rejection there will be toward gay men and lesbian women.

Finally, the participants who reported more close personal contact with gay men and lesbian women viewed the diversity that gay people contribute to society more positively than the participants who had little contact with gay people. These results are consistent with the study by Massey and other studies Collier et al. The shortened version of the Polymorphous Prejudice Scale PPS analyzes new manifestations of prejudice toward gay men and lesbian women.

Specifically, this instrument consists of 16 items distributed in four subscales: values gay progress, positive beliefs about gay men, positive beliefs about lesbian women and, resistance to heteronormative expectations.

The aim of the current study is to add new evidence about the reliability and validity of the scale. The scale is administrated to heterosexual university students from Spain with a mean age of Reliability and factorial validity estimates are presented. A four-factor structure is supported using confirmatory factor analysis short version. Our results can be useful in planning variables for intervention programs designed to foster the tolerance and normality of sexual diversity.

The few studies that have examined the interaction between direct contact and participant sex on sexual prejudice initially did not find evidence for sex differences e. However, more recent correlational studies have found that although heterosexual female participants reported more sexual minority contact than their male counterparts, the positive effect of direct contact on improved sexual prejudice was greater for heterosexual male participants Baunach et al.

Despite apparent sex differences in people's evaluations of lesbians and gay men, to our knowledge, the interaction between the sex of the participant and the sex of the sexual minority contact partner has not been investigated in the context of intergroup contact.

Past research has either mea- sured participants' direct contact with "lesbians and gay men" collectively e. These previous approaches to measuring sexual minority contact have made it difficult to determine whether the contact-prejudice effect was stronger for heterosexual men versus women when the contact partner was a lesbian woman or a gay man.

The current study experimentally examined the potential for a contemporary extension of the contact hypothesis, known as electronic- or E-contact, to reduce sexual prejudice, intergroup anxiety, and avoidant behavioral intentions among heterosexuals. It also extended the sexual minority contact literature by examining the role of participant and interaction partner sex as a possible boundary condition of this contact-prejudice relationship.

To test our hypotheses, heterosexual female and male university students were randomly allocated to interact with a homosexual or heterosexual, female or male E-contact partner, in a collaborative and text-only online interaction before completing the outcome measures. For heterosexual women, however, E-contact did not influence the outcome variables. In the context of sexual prejudice, these results suggest that E-contact may be particularly useful as a prejudice-reduction strategy among individuals who typically require it most: heterosexual men.

Full-text available. Jul Attitudes can be defined in many different ways such as " an inner and neural state of readiness developing as a result of experiences that shape or dynamically affect the individual's behaviours on every object or situation it is involved " ; " a covered and stimulating reaction considered to be important in society where the individual lives " ; " a quite permanent system with behavioral tendencies containing experience or feeling associated factors towards a certain object, idea or person " Freedman, The attitudes towards homosexuality did not differ in terms of gender.

Moreover, studies also show that gender is an important factor creating a significant difference in the attitudes towards homosexuality [Hui, Peng, Yuanyuan, ; Collier, Bos, Standfort ]. It can be discussed that this difference is created because of the cultural roles given to women in the Turkish culture. Apr The study investigates the difference in the attitudes of Turkish psychological counseling and guidance students towards homosexuality and people with disability in terms of educational level and gender.

The findings show there is a significant difference in the attitudes towards people with disability favoring females. In addition, it was also found that, there is a significant difference in the attitudes towards homosexuality.

This process is particularly true for people in dominant groups and people who have more strongly incorporated ingroup membership into their self-esteem.

In contrast, a reduction in prejudice may occur when there are positive interactions and contact between ingroups and outgroups e. Who Thinks Outside the Gender Box? Trans people are targeted with widespread prejudice and discrimination in the United States. We found that cisgender heterosexual men reported more trans prejudice, more gender traditionalism, less feminist attitudes, and a weaker feminist identity than cisgender heterosexual women.

Participants who reported less traditional gender beliefs and more feminist attitudes reported less trans prejudice. Although feminist identity was not associated with trans prejudice for cisgender heterosexual women, cisgender heterosexual men who more strongly identified as feminists reported less trans prejudice.

These findings underline the complexity and multiplicity of gender beliefs and their distinct associations with trans prejudice. Our results also have implications for clinicians and feminist activists, calling on them to critically examine their own gender beliefs and to advocate for the inclusion of trans people within their respective contexts, as well as trans rights more broadly.

Examples of current ethnographic research in students' perceptions of rules include a Swedish study by Thornberg In addition, student nonconformity is also studied in specific areas, such as the area of gender, where questionnaire-based investigations are used most often Higdon, ; Collier, ; Collier, ;Toomey et al. Student Nonconformity at School. Jan The aim of this qualitative research was to describe forms of student nonconformity at school and how these were codified. An analysis of 61 student teachers' narratives about their own school attendance gave us some insight into their childhoods.

Based on this analysis, we describe the normative worlds of the family and peer collective that can reinforce or weaken student nonconformity at school. The paper then focuses on norms specific to schools and how they are codified. These determine the forms of student nonconformity, which are divided according to five criteria: type of social norm, number of actors, sanctions, students' perception of the nonconformity, and location.

This study describes learning outside formal curricula at school as well as students' perspectives and their active role in this process. Finally, attitudes to homosexuals are predicted by the experience of con- tact with members of this group. Cohesion, similarity and value in parent-child representations of Albanian and Serbian immigrant and Italian native children.

The study of parent-child representations across cultures is important in order to obtain a proper understanding of the attributes, size and positioning of such figures as indicators of different interaction patterns across cultures.

A thorough base of research evidence for the interpretation of children's drawings may facilitate work in multicultural educational settings and enhance our understanding of cultural diversity in schools. Italy provides an ideal context for the study of parent-child representations, as the country has witnessed increasing cultural diversity in recent years with the immigration of various ethnic groups. This study examined the extent to which this context influences children's representations in domains of Cohesion interpersonal bonding , Similarity affinity and Value spatial relevance among parent-child figures because these domains inform important representational processes of interpersonal bonding with parents across specific cultures.

The results showed that in drawings made by Albanian and Serbian children parental figures were drawn similar to and close to the child figure representing their less independent reciprocal stance. The parental figures drawn by Italian children appear bigger and farther apart. Important implications may be derived from the results in facilitating work in multicultural educational settings, by enhancing knowledge regarding cultural diversity in schools.

Activities that involve cooperation among mixed race groups or are structured in ways that challenge racial stereotypes reduce prejudice and increasing the quality intergroup relations Lai et al. May This paper pursues 3 basic aims. First, it outlines a relational model of extremist ideology and ideological transformation. The relational model holds that ideological transformation can occur when ideological advocates are engaged in ways that a preserve their dignity, b acknowledge and address their interests and grievances, c create contradictions internal to their ideological systems, and d provide resources for constructing alternative systems that addresses the interests served by the extremist ideology.

Finally, attitudes to homosexuals are predicted by the experience of contact with members of this group. Attitudes to homosexuals in Russia: Content, structure, and predictors. Despite the growth of negative attitudes to homosexuals in Russia the research into this topic has been extremely scarce. Based on the analysis of social discourse, we have created a pool of items and undertaken three empirical studies aimed to develop and validate the Russian Attitudes to Homosexuals Inventory RAHI and investigate the associations of homophobic attitudes with a range of demographic and psychological variables.

Negative attitudes to homosexuals were stronger in males, religious respondents, and those heterosexuals who denied having experienced any feelings of same-sex attraction in their life. Using hierarchical multiple regression we found that homophobia was positively predicted by authoritarianism and negatively predicted by experience of same-sex attraction and social contact with homosexuals as friends.

We also found weaker positive associations of homophobia with religiosity, social identification with gender , masculinity, extraversion, and social desirability, as well as a negative association with openness.

The findings are in line with the existing body of research from other countries, but reveal the culturally-specific features of the content of Russian homophobia e. The RAHI emerged as a valid and reliable tool, which can be used for future Russian-language studies. Keywords: attitudes to homosexuality, homo-negativity, homosexual prejudice, perceived threat of homosexuals, authoritarian personality. Sep Prior research suggests that gender, ethnicity, and religiosity are independently related to such attitudes.

Gender has been associated with attitudes toward gay men and lesbians in several U. Ethnic group differences in attitudes toward same-sex sexuality have been identified in other studies, for example, Ahrold and Meston's study with U. Sep Psychol Fr. The visibility of a stigmatized identity is central in determining how individuals experience that identity. Sexual minority status e. This conceptualization fails to recognize, however, the strong link between sexual minority status and a visible stigma: gender nonconformity.

Gender nonconformity, or the perception that an individual fails to conform to gendered norms of behavior and appearance, is strongly stigmatized, and is popularly associated with sexual minority status. The hypothesis that harassment due to gender nonconformity mediates the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms was tested.

A mediational model was supported, in which the association between sexual minority identity and depressive symptoms occurred via harassment due to gender nonconformity.

Findings highlight harassment due to gender nonconformity as a possible mechanism for exploring variability in depressive symptoms among sexual minorities. Interpersonal contact and sexual prejudice are reciprocally related. Sex differences in sexual prejudice. Contact as mediator variable. The present article analyzes the relationship between sex and nationality and prejudice toward gay men and lesbians and the rejection of same-sex parents in Spain and Chile.

Results indicate that men are more prejudiced than women, and the Chilean participants report more prejudice than the Spanish participants.

In addition, sex differences in attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and differences by nationality are mediated by the contact variable. Nationality differences in attitudes same-sex parents normative opposition scale were fully mediated. Findings from this study suggest that contact may explain the link between sex differences and sexual prejudice.

This subscale operationalizes the construct of heterosexism towards families with same-sex parents, and it is quite difficult to intervene in this social construct to reduce the prejudice. Findings of this study may have important implications for reducing sexual prejudice. Knowing, interacting and fostering relationships between the members of the outgroup and the ingroup can reduce differences due to sex and nationality. It could be that religion trumps the effects of age and gender; given the limited variance, it is also possible that our measures were not sensitive enough to capture differences related to age and gender.

As in other studies e. Dec Religion plays an important role in framing the public discourse on sexuality, especially in countries where religion fully permeates social life. We explored the perspectives of Kenyan religious leaders on sexual and gender diversity in their country's specific context. A total of Catholic, Islamic, and Protestant leaders from urban centers and rural townships completed a self-administered questionnaire specifically developed for this study.

The leaders' perspectives were predominantly negative. Limited acceptance was conditional on sexual minorities not engaging in same-sex practices or seeing such practices as sinful. The majority of religious leaders agreed on the difference between civil law and religious doctrine. Human rights principles enshrined in Kenya's Constitution were considered to be applicable to sexual and gender minorities.

Decriminalization of same-sex sexuality was seen as against one's religion. Perspectives were less negative if leaders were familiar with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT persons.

Interventions that promote intergroup contact could be effective in changing religious leaders' mind-sets and advancing human rights and health for sexual and gender minorities. Heterosexual men may hold different attitudes toward lesbians and gay men or may have sexualized views of gender-conforming lesbians Worthen, Taken together, the stigma literature suggests that a patriarchal view of potentially gender-conforming lesbians who may be perceived as posing little or no threat to existing gender-and sexual orientation-based social hierarchies is a separate issue from the idea of " gay men and lesbians " or " gay people " categorized together as threats to existing social hierarchies e.

The association between AIDS-related stigma and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Feb Dominic J. Parrott Wilson Vincent John L. This study examined whether self-identified race and prior contact with a gay man or lesbian moderate the association between AIDS-related stigma and aggression toward gay men and lesbians when controlling for sexual prejudice.

Regression analyses showed that AIDS-related stigma was positively associated with aggression toward gay men and lesbians among White men who reported no prior contact, but not among White men who endorsed prior contact and Black men regardless of prior contact.

Findings suggest that intergroup contact may be a key component to reducing the effects of AIDS-related stigma towards stigmatized groups. Implications for aggression theory and intervention are discussed. Note that all of these are positive outcomes associated with intergroup contact. These positive effects emerged not only for ethnic target groups for whom the original theory was devised, but also for other, often stigmatised groups — such as homosexuals e.

Accordingly, intergroup contact lowers prejudice through various affective and cognitive mechanisms, while also encouraging positive behaviours towards the outgroup, increasing knowledge of the outgroup, promoting positive norms in a contact situation, and heightening trust in the outgroup Hodson et al.

Mar Anri Smit. Responses to homophobic name-calling are likely related to perceptions of the perpetrator's intentions and feelings about one's own identity including sexual orientation and gender expression. Although homophobic verbal victimization has been associated with negative mental health outcomes, little actually is known about its general prevalence and relationship to mental health among adolescents. In addition, the relationship of homophobic name-calling to mental health in gender non-conforming adolescents is not well understood.

This study examined the relationship between homophobic verbal victimization and mental health in adolescents, accounting for their sexual orientation and level of gender non-conformity. Survey data was collected from adolescents ages 11—17 who attended eight schools in and around Amsterdam, the Netherlands; As hypothesized, male adolescents and those with same-sex attractions were more likely to report victimization from homophobic name-calling than were their female and non-same-sex attracted peers.

Contrary to expectations, homophobic name-calling was not independently associated with psychological distress after controlling for gender, sexual attractions, gender non-conformity, and other negative treatment by peers. The hypothesis that homophobic name-calling would be more strongly associated with psychological distress in male, same-sex attracted, and gender non-conforming adolescents was also not supported.

The results suggest that same-sex attracted and gender non-conforming youth are particularly vulnerable to homophobic name-calling, in the Netherlands as in other contexts, but also that other forms of peer victimization may be more strongly related to mental health. Moreover, the acceptance of gender nonconformity mediates the link between contact with sexual minorities and sexual orientation prejudice Collier et al. More specifically, in a sample of students from eight high schools in the Netherlands, these researchers assessed the number of openly gay or lesbian people that the participants knew in their direct environment, and their attitudes toward gays and lesbians.

Given its prevalence and impact, it is important that prejudice against sexual-and gender identity minorities is reduced and that negative behaviors against these minorities are prevented.

We introduce and provide a definition of the term Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Prejudice SOGIP , and discuss its determinants and configurations as well as ways to measure it.

Furthermore, we review the recent social psychological literature on SOGIP-reducing interventions, identify scientific knowledge gaps regarding these interventions, and offer recommendations on how to apply the available knowledge to real-life situations.

We conclude that there are many interventions currently being employed to target SOGIP with some seeming more effective than others. Particularly promising interventions are those aimed at evoking empathy and perspective taking and those aimed at developing alliances between minority and majority members.

However, there is still room for improvement. Overall, little empirical evidence speaks to the robustness of intervention effects, its underlying mechanisms, duration, and boundary conditions. By joining forces, researchers and practitioners should aim to overcome practical and theoretical obstacles in evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. Policy makers should support initiatives that test, improve, implement and distribute intervention programs, and can help bring together researchers and practitioners.

Diferencias sexuales en prejuicio sexual. El contacto como variable mediadora. Los hallazgos de este estudio pueden tener importantes implicaciones para reducir el prejuicio sexual. Conocer, interactuar y fomentar relaciones entre los miembros del exogrupo y del endogrupo puede reducir las diferencias debidas al sexo y la nacionalidad. Hence, to capture the impact of heteronormativity and uncomfortable encounters on the lives of same-sex oriented people, it is important to study the role of gender expression and societal intolerance of gender nonconformity.

In the Netherlands, Bos, Van Beusekom, Baams, and Collier have started to develop an interesting body of research on gender expression and gender nonconformity in relation to victimization, mental health, and relations with peers and parents e. Uncomfortable encounters. Dutch same-sex oriented young people's experiences and the relation with gender nonconformity in a heteronormative, tolerant society. The meaning of gender nonconformity and power dynamics were pivotal.

The dissertation is based on survey data among same-sex oriented people aged between , followed by 38 in-depth interviews. These findings were consistent with previous work by Freeman et al. Interestingly, the items that we regarded as filler items were also affected by the sexual orientation and sex of the stimulus. Jun Arch Sex Behav. Although there has been considerable research investigating the ability to identify sexual orientation from static images, or "gaydar," few studies have considered the role of female sexual orientation or sexual interest for example, sociosexual orientation in judgment accuracy.

In two studies, we investigated the sexuality detection ability, and masculinity and femininity as cues used in judgment. We found that detection accuracy was better than chance levels for both male and female targets and that male targets were more likely to be falsely labeled as homosexual than female targets were.

Overall, female faces were more accurately identified as heterosexual or homosexual than male faces and homosexual female raters were biased towards labeling targets as homosexual. Sociosexuality did not influence the accuracy with which targets were identified as heterosexual or homosexual. In Study 2, heterosexual and 20 homosexual women rated the stimulus for masculinity and femininity.

Heterosexual women were rated as more feminine and less masculine than homosexual women and homosexual men were rated as more feminine and less masculine than heterosexual men. Sexual orientation of the judges did not affect the ratings. The results were discussed with a reference to evolutionary and cultural influences affecting sexual orientation judgment accuracy. Nonetheless, modern medicine in India remains reluctant to emphatically support liberal sexual norms, because of local religious and social orthodoxy.

Jun Introduction: It is important to understand the attitude of medical students towards homosexuality, as this may affect patient care. Methods: Year 2 and 3 students at Calcutta National Medical College, Kolkata, India were asked to selfadminister an item questionnaire anonymously.

Internal consistency of the questionnaire statements was high Cronbach's alpha of 0. There were five responses for each statement: strongly agree, generally agree, unsure, generally disagree, and strongly disagree. Results: Of students, Overall, Only About Nonetheless, negative attitudes were reflected in the stereotypical image of homosexuality.

Conclusion: Although the overall attitude of Indian medical students towards homosexuality is positive, the percentage of students with negative attitudes remains quite high. Further work on the medical curriculum is needed to change these negative attitudes so that patients receive appropriate care.

Aug Introduction: In all known societies, heterosexuality is the most prevalent sexual orientation among the population; nevertheless, homosexuality has always existed in the course of the history of humanity and has generally been classified as something immoral, unpleasant, lewd and indecent, and as a mental illness.

Objective: To address attitudes towards people with non-heterosexual orientation in government services. Methodology: Analytical study, which included 90 public officials from the Municipal Board of the Municipality of San Lorenzo to whom the modern scale of homophobia was applied.

Results: Cronbach's alpha was 0. Age was correlated with the "Diversion and modifiability" factor of the subscale for homophobia towards lesbians MHS - L.

Women generally have more favorable attitudes in all the factors. Discussion: Tolerance toward sexual minorities has become an emblem of political struggle. This tolerance involves the recognition from a privileged group of something that must be endured with resignation, and not a complete social recognition. The social tolerance plays out as a sort of implicit negotiation that keeps non-normative sexualities relegated to invisibility, confined to the private life, and hidden from the public, and it severely punishes the transgression of these limits.

To assess homophobic attitudes toward gay and lesbian persons and examine how those negative attitudes contributed to risk factors that may impact gay and lesbian persons among a sample of Lebanese individuals. A cross-sectional study, conducted between March and July , enrolled participants aged between 15 and 80 years. Our study supports the prevalence of homophobia among people in Lebanon. Understanding the correlation factors and predict discriminative attitudes can be of great help for policymakers when it comes to approaching the problem of homophobia with evidence-based solutions.

Justine Calcagno. In the current study, I tested a gender-moderated process model to explain when members of one relatively privileged group are oriented toward collective action for the rights of a relatively disadvantaged group. My model integrated three factors—gender, collective guilt, and close cross-group friendships—to explain collective action.

I expected that among women collective guilt would not directly increase collective action, but having more close friendships with members of a disadvantaged group, an other-focused experience, would override the self-focused experience of collective guilt, and redirect guilt toward collective action. I tested the predictions in the context of lesbian, gay, and bisexual LGB rights. The sample of 85 undergraduates who self-identified as straight was racially diverse and ranged from 17 to 41 years old.

Participants reported collective guilt, the extent of close friendships with people who are LGB, and their willingness to engage in collective action for LGB rights.

Among women who are straight, but not among straight men, close cross-group friendships mediated the relation between collective guilt and collective action.

I discuss the moderating role of gender, implications for research, and limitations. I suggest that winning the hearts and minds of the relatively privileged in support of social change may require that activists and policy makers understand the psychological relationships those individuals have with the members of disadvantaged groups. The main purpose of our study is to compare the beliefs of Spanish and Chilean university students about the effects that same-sex parents might have on their children.

A total of participants completed the study Spaniards and Chileans. The results indicate a kind of modern and subtle rejection based on hetero-normativity. Furthermore, the results indicated the effects of sex men have a greater degree of rejection , traditional and sexist opinions linked to a greater rejection of same-sex parents, and the contact variable which inversely correlates with this rejection.

The results show that the etiology of homosexual orientation also correlates with rejection of same-sex parents when it is believed that homosexuality is learned or can be changed.

Gender Identities and Gender Dysphoria in the Netherlands. Jul Arch Sex Behav. Lisette Kuyper Ciel Wijsen. Several studies estimate the prevalence of gender dysphoria among adults by examining the number of individuals turning to health services.

Since individuals might be hesitant to seek medical care related to gender dysphoria, these studies could underestimate the prevalence. The studies also lack information regarding the variance among different aspects of gender dysphoric conditions.

Results showed that 4. For women, this was 0. These novel findings show that studies based on the number of individuals seeking medical care might underestimate the prevalence of gender dysphoria. Furthermore, the findings argue against a dichotomous approach to gender dysphoria. This study explored the role of gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and sexual attraction in adolescents' acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity.

Using an intersectionality perspective, we also tested whether the effects of gender, ethnicity, and religiosity on adolescents' attitudes would function differently in adolescents with and without same-sex attractions. The sample was Approximately one third of adolescents in the sample were of a non-Western ethnic background Results of our analyses showed that adolescents in our sample who were male, of non-Western ethnicity, and who were more religious as indicated by frequency of religious service attendance , were less accepting of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity in comparison to female, Western and less religious peers.

We also found a significant interaction effect between religiosity and sexual attractions, but only in relation to evaluation of same-sex attracted, gender nonconforming females. The negative effect of religiosity on acceptance of same-sex attracted, gender non-conforming females was stronger among those adolescents who reported same-sex attractions. Jan Arch Sex Behav. Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults females and 86 males, years old were assessed to establish whether there was a relation between gender nonconformity and psychological well-being and whether this relation was mediated by perceived experiences of stigmatization due to perceived or actual sexual orientation and moderated by biological sex.

The participants were recruited via announcements on Dutch LGBTQ-oriented community websites and then linked to a protected online questionnaire.

The questionnaire was used to measure gender nonconformity, perceived experiences of stigmatization, and psychological well-being. Gender nonconformity was found to predict lower levels of psychological well-being and the mediation analysis confirmed that lower levels of psychological well-being were related to the perceived experiences of stigmatization. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. These findings show that both research and interventions should pay more attention to gender nonconformity among young people in order to create a more positive climate for young sexual minority members.

Attitudes toward lesbians and gays vary across national populations, and previous research has found relatively more accepting attitudes in the Netherlands as compared to the United States. However, between-country differences were attenuated by accounting for the beliefs about lesbians and gays that participants used to justify their attitudes.

The results suggest that the relative importance of particular beliefs about lesbians and gays to attitudes at the group level may be context dependent but also that certain beliefs are salient to attitudes across national contexts. Confidence, Labeling Bias, and Accuracy. Nov J Homosex. Previous research has largely ignored the relationship between sexual orientation judgement accuracy, confidence, and attitudes towards homosexuality. Further, especially in men, homophobia is associated with cognitive biases in labelling other men, but does not have a relationship with increased accuracy.

Using survey data of college students from two universities in China, this study explores the effects of traditional culture filial piety, parental attitudes toward homosexuality, and attitudes toward sexuality and social changes accompanying modernization intergroup contact and exposure to homosexuality in the media on attitudes toward homosexuality as well as gay and lesbian people in China. This study finds that Chinese college students generally hold accepting attitudes toward homosexuality, although the extent of tolerance is limited, and is affected by various factors.

Traditional cultural factors predict less tolerance for homosexuality and gay and lesbian people whereas modernizing factors predict greater tolerance. Although both traditional and and modernizing factors shape contemporary attitudes toward homosexuality in Chinese society, modernizing variables seem to have a greater impact. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.

Homosexuality in the present is understood with negative connotations and for some time was considered a mental disorder. It has been reported that sexual prejudice is common in medical students. The sample average age was The reliability of the scale was measured using Cronbach's alpha, resulting 0.

It was found that Greater acceptance was found in the third course In conclusion, most students were found to have an indecisive attitude towards homosexuality, and the most negative attitudes were found in men, in non-catholic Christians, and in those who don't have homosexual friends.

Kelly L. Sexual prejudice and discrimination are extremely prevalent throughout society, and previous research suggests that there are a multitude of negative consequences associated with being the target of this prejudice. One way of reducing prejudice is for heterosexual allies to confront the perpetrator of sexually prejudicial behaviors. Additionally, they reported on their attitudes about the comments and the perpetrator.

Results suggest that gender of the participant, target, and particularly the perpetrator, all play a significant role in responses to heterosexist hate speech. Implications for reduction of prejudice and future research are discussed.

The QLS analyzes new manifestations of sexual prejudice. A four-factor structure was supported. The subscales were related to gender, political ideology, religious beliefs, contact, supporting the civil rights of gay people, beliefs about the etiology of homosexuality, and sexual prejudice in the expected direction. Our results may be useful in planning intervention programs designed to foster the tolerance and normality of sexual diversity.

When is it Okay to be Alone? Informed by prior work on social withdrawal and gender role norms, the present study utilizes data from a large sample of U. Results showed that participants were most accepting of unsociability, although perceptions differed somewhat according to the genders of the actor and the participant.

For instance, participants were more accepting of shyness and avoidance in men but more accepting of unsociability in women.

Findings have important implications for the refinement of theory and research because they highlight the need to more carefully consider the oftentimes neglected interface between social withdrawal and gender. Exploring Homophobia in Tbilisi, Georgia. The purpose of this study is to determine statistical predictors of homophobic attitudes among the residents of Tbilisi, Georgia. We analyze survey data from a representative sample of the Tbilisi adult population.

The study also found that people without liberal attitudes tend to be more homophobic when they have personal contacts with homosexuals. This article highlights the need for a more comprehensive approach to education and the promotion of liberal values as well as legal equality for LGBTQ individuals to decrease the level of homophobia in Georgian society and, specifically, in Tbilisi. Majumdar, C.

Every society changes with time. With prosperity and improvement in economic conditions, values change. Traditional values that a society carries attenuate and modernity replaces age-old notions. The present article inspects different waves of World Values Survey WVS to analyse changing pattern of perception of Indian respondents on bribe, homosexuality, prostitution, abortion, divorce, sex before marriage, suicide and euthanasia.

It is observed that Indians, both women and men, have accepted and thus expressed tolerance over such issues. One puzzling result that shows that older people have accepted such issues in a greater proportion than young ones can be attributed to idealistic aspirations of the younger generation and the process of social learning that makes the aged tolerant. We asked forty-three secondary school students to describe homosexuals and heterosexuals, from a list of personality traits, by giving their own judgments and by indicating how they thought that society perceived them.

We expected them to think that the homosexuals were less desirable but at the same time just as socially useful as heterosexuals.

We also expected the participants to feel that, in society, homosexuals were considered as less desirable and also less socially useful than heterosexuals. Those assumptions were only partially verified, especially among female participants.

The results are discussed in terms of gender differences in the perception of homosexuality and in the consequences of these stereotypes. Nov Experiences of sexual prejudice threaten the quality of life and psychological well-being of sexual minority youth.

The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of how we developed a theory- and evidence-based sexual prejudice reduction program suitable for the Dutch high school context, guided by the intervention mapping approach IM.

In line with IM, six steps were followed: an initial needs assessment in which empirical, theoretical, and new data were gathered to acquire a thorough understanding of the problem step 1 ; the formulation of program objectives for both students and teachers step 2 ; the selection of theory-based methods and applications step 3 ; program development step 4 ; the provision of an adoption and implementation plan step 5 ; and the development of an evaluation plan step 6. In conclusion, developing a sexual prejudice reduction program for schools is a challenging but feasible process.

IM is an effective tool for the systematic theory- and evidence-driven development of such a program. Intergroup anxiety and political loss: The buffering effects of believing in the open marketplace of ideas and openness to diverse political discussions.

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Abstrakt: Cílem příspěvku je prezentace výsledků dotazníkového šetření o rizikovém chování žáků 2. stupně ZŠ ve vztahu k jejich osobnostním charakteristikám. contributes to the qualitative value of research projects (McGuirk, O'Neill ). The nature of the Charlie o.s. Každý elektronický dotazník zahrnoval prosbu o šíření 1, p. 39– BLIDON, M. (): Ville et homosexualité, une relation à.

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A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authorsclicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more. DOI: Kate L Collier. Henny M W Bos. Theo G M Sandfort. This study explored how contact with gay and lesbian persons homosexualite adolescents' attitudes toward them, and whether this association is mediated or moderated by one's acceptance of gender non-conformity.

We homosexualite survey responses from Dutch adolescents aged who reported having no same-sex attractions. Data were collected in at 8 schools in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Multilevel analyses showed that acceptance of gender non-conformity mediated rather than moderated the relationship between intergroup contact and sexual prejudice in males. The effect of intergroup contact on females' attitudes toward lesbian women was no longer significant in multilevel analyses. The findings suggest that attention to both intergroup contact and acceptance of gender non-conformity would enhance our understanding of attitudes toward homosexuality in adolescents.

Citations References The psychological study of sexual prejudice has been critical in understanding individuals' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to nonheterosexual individuals; however, the construct, definition, and empirical literature related to sexual prejudice has been limited by the focus on sexual orientation.

This is particularly true developmentally as young people try to figure out their own sexual orientations and gender identities. Similar to studies of adults, in studies of adolescents, gender emerges as one of the most robust correlates of SOGIE-based prejudice in young people, with males exhibiting higher levels of prejudice than females across all dimensions of prejudice Collier et al.

On measures of beliefs, male adolescents are more likely than female adolescents to believe same-sex sexuality is wrong and less likely to evaluate lesbian and gay peers as acceptable Horn, Horn,Horn et al.

That is, across studies, males report more prejudice toward gay males than toward lesbians, whereas females report equal levels of prejudice toward gay males and lesbians or slightly higher prejudice toward lesbians.

Thus, males' prejudice scores toward gay males are consistently higher than females' prejudice scores toward gay males, but fewer gender differences are seen in prejudice scores toward lesbians Collier et al. Finally, attitudes and beliefs regarding gender roles e.

Stacey S. Although limited research on perpetrators of these types of harassment is beginning to emerge, little of the work is framed around this concept. I conclude with recommendations for research on this issue. In addition, another test of the instrument's validity is its relationship with contact with gay men and lesbian women.

Therefore, we propose that the more contact there is with people of a homosexual sexual orientation, the less rejection there will be toward gay men and lesbian women. Finally, the participants who reported more close personal contact with gay men and lesbian women viewed the diversity that gay people contribute to society more positively than the participants who had little contact with gay people. These results are consistent with the study dotaznik Massey and other studies Collier et al.

The shortened version homosexualite the Polymorphous Prejudice Scale PPS analyzes new manifestations of prejudice toward dotaznik men and lesbian women.

Specifically, this instrument consists of 16 items distributed in four subscales: values gay progress, positive beliefs about gay men, positive beliefs about lesbian women and, resistance to heteronormative expectations. The aim of the current study is to add new evidence about the reliability and validity of the scale. The scale is administrated to heterosexual university students from Spain with a mean age of Reliability and factorial validity estimates are presented.

A four-factor dotaznik is supported using confirmatory factor analysis short version. Our results can be useful in planning variables for intervention programs designed to foster the tolerance and normality of sexual diversity. The few studies that have examined the interaction between direct contact and participant sex on sexual prejudice initially did not find evidence for sex differences e.

However, more recent correlational homosexualite have found that although heterosexual female participants reported more sexual minority contact than their male counterparts, the positive effect of direct contact on improved sexual prejudice was greater for heterosexual male participants Baunach et al. Despite apparent sex differences in people's dotaznik of lesbians and gay men, to our knowledge, the interaction between dotaznik sex of the participant and homosexualite sex of the sexual minority contact partner has not been investigated in the context of intergroup contact.

Past research has either mea- sured participants' direct contact with "lesbians and gay men" collectively e. These previous approaches to measuring sexual minority contact have made it difficult to determine whether the contact-prejudice effect was stronger for heterosexual men versus women when the contact partner was a lesbian woman or a gay dotaznik. The current study experimentally examined the potential for a contemporary extension of the contact hypothesis, known as electronic- or E-contact, to reduce sexual prejudice, intergroup anxiety, and avoidant behavioral intentions among heterosexuals.

It also extended the sexual dotaznik contact literature by examining the role of participant and interaction partner sex as a possible boundary condition of this contact-prejudice relationship.

To test our hypotheses, heterosexual female and male university students were randomly allocated to interact with a homosexual or heterosexual, female or male E-contact partner, in a collaborative and text-only online interaction before completing the outcome measures. For heterosexual women, however, E-contact did not influence the outcome variables.

In the context of sexual prejudice, these results suggest that E-contact may be particularly useful as a prejudice-reduction strategy among individuals who typically require it most: heterosexual men.

Full-text available. Jul Attitudes can be defined in many different ways such as " an inner and neural state of readiness developing as a result of experiences that shape or dynamically affect the individual's behaviours on every object or situation it is involved " ; " a covered and stimulating reaction considered to be important in society where the individual lives " ; " a quite permanent system with behavioral tendencies containing experience or feeling associated factors towards a certain object, idea or person " Freedman, The attitudes towards homosexuality did not differ in terms of gender.

Moreover, studies also show that gender is an important factor creating a significant difference in the attitudes towards homosexuality [Hui, Peng, Yuanyuan, ; Collier, Bos, Standfort ]. It can be discussed that this difference is created because of the cultural roles given to women in the Turkish culture.

Apr The study investigates the difference in the attitudes of Turkish psychological counseling and guidance students towards homosexuality and people with disability in terms of educational level and gender. The findings show there is a significant difference in the attitudes towards people with disability favoring females.

In addition, it was also found that, there is a significant difference in the attitudes towards homosexuality. This process is particularly true for people in dominant groups and people who have more strongly incorporated ingroup membership into their self-esteem. In contrast, a reduction in prejudice may occur when there are positive interactions and contact between ingroups dotaznik outgroups e.

Who Thinks Outside the Gender Box? Trans people are targeted with widespread prejudice and discrimination in the United States. We found that cisgender heterosexual men reported more trans prejudice, more gender traditionalism, less feminist attitudes, and a weaker feminist identity than cisgender dotaznik women.

Participants who reported less traditional gender beliefs and more feminist attitudes reported homosexualite trans prejudice.

Although feminist identity was not associated with trans prejudice for cisgender heterosexual women, cisgender heterosexual men who more strongly identified as feminists reported less trans prejudice. These findings underline the complexity and multiplicity of gender beliefs and their distinct associations with trans prejudice.

Our results also have implications for clinicians and feminist activists, calling on them to critically examine their own gender beliefs and to advocate for the inclusion of trans people within their respective contexts, as well as trans rights more broadly. Examples of current ethnographic research in students' perceptions of rules include a Swedish study by Thornberg In addition, student nonconformity is also studied in specific areas, such as the area of gender, where questionnaire-based investigations are used most often Higdon, ; Collier, ; Collier, ;Toomey et al.

Student Nonconformity at School. Jan The aim of homosexualite qualitative research was to describe forms of student nonconformity at school and how these were codified. An analysis homosexualite 61 student teachers' narratives about their own school attendance gave us some insight into their childhoods. Based on this analysis, we describe the normative worlds of the family and peer collective that can reinforce or weaken student nonconformity at school.

The paper then focuses on norms specific to schools and how they are codified. These determine the forms of student nonconformity, which are divided according to five criteria: type of social norm, number of actors, sanctions, students' perception of the nonconformity, and location.

This study describes learning outside formal curricula at school as well as students' perspectives and their active role in this process. Finally, attitudes to homosexuals are predicted by the experience of con- tact with members of this group. Cohesion, similarity and value in parent-child representations of Albanian and Serbian immigrant and Italian native children.

The study of parent-child representations across cultures is important in order to obtain a proper understanding of the attributes, size and positioning of such figures as indicators of different interaction patterns across cultures. A thorough base of research evidence for the interpretation of children's drawings may facilitate work in multicultural educational settings and enhance our understanding of cultural diversity in schools.

Italy provides an ideal context for the study of parent-child representations, as the country has witnessed increasing cultural diversity in recent years with the immigration of various ethnic groups. This study examined the extent to which this context influences children's representations in domains of Cohesion interpersonal bondingSimilarity affinity and Value spatial relevance among parent-child figures because these domains inform important representational processes of interpersonal bonding with parents across specific cultures.

The results showed that in drawings made by Albanian and Serbian children parental figures were drawn similar to and close to the child figure representing their less independent reciprocal stance. The parental figures drawn by Italian children appear bigger and farther apart. Important implications may be derived from the results in facilitating work in multicultural educational settings, by enhancing knowledge regarding cultural diversity in schools. Activities that involve cooperation among mixed race groups or are structured in ways that challenge racial stereotypes reduce prejudice and increasing the quality intergroup relations Lai et al.

May This paper pursues 3 basic aims. First, it outlines a relational model of extremist ideology and ideological transformation. The relational model holds that ideological transformation can occur when ideological advocates are engaged in ways that a preserve their dignity, b acknowledge and address their interests and grievances, c create contradictions internal to their ideological systems, and d provide resources for constructing alternative systems that addresses the interests served by the extremist ideology.

Finally, attitudes to homosexuals are predicted by the experience of contact with members of this group. Attitudes to homosexuals in Russia: Content, structure, homosexualite predictors.

Despite the growth of negative attitudes to homosexuals in Russia the research into this topic has been extremely scarce.

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