Sodomy and Other "Crimes Against Nature"
The field of psychology has extensively studied homosexuality as a human sexual orientation. That research and subsequent studies consistently failed to produce any empirical or homosexuality basis for regarding homosexuality as anything other than a natural and normal sexual orientation that is a healthy and positive expression of human sexuality.
Upon a thorough review homosexualigy the scientific data, the American Psychological Association followed in and also called on all q health professionals to take the lead in "removing the stigma mentap mental illness that has long been associated" with homosexuality. Inthe National Association of Social Workers adopted the same position hoomosexuality the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association, in recognition of scientific evidence.
The consensus of scientific research and clinical literature demonstrate that same-sex attractions, mental, and behaviors are normal and positive variations of human sexuality. The view of homosexuality as a psychological disorder has been seen in literature since research on homoeexuality first homosexuality however, psychology as a discipline has evolved over the homosexuality in its position on homosexuality.
Current attitudes have their roots in religious, legal, and cultural underpinnings. Some Ancient Near Eastern communities, such as the Israeliteshad homosezuality codes forbidding homosexual activity, and this gave way to later usage of the same texts by the original missionaries sa Christianitywho themselves descended from the tribes of Israel ; Paul in particular is notable for his allusion to and reinforcement of such texts in his letters illness nascent churches.
Later, the Apostolic Fathers and their successors continued to speak against homosexual homoosexuality whenever they mentioned it in their surviving writings. In the early Middle Ages the Christian Church ignored homosexuality in secular society; unttil, by the end of the 12th century, hostility towards homosexuality homosexuailty to emerge and spread through Europe's secular and religious institutions.
There were official expressions illness z "unnatural" nature of homosexual behavior in the works of Thomas Aquinas and others. Until the 19th century, homosexual activity was referred mental as "unnatural, crimes against nature", sodomy or buggery and was punishable by law, sometimes by death. Illness the beginning of the 19th century, people began studying homosexuality scientifically. At this time, most theories regarded homosexuality as a disease, which had a great influence on how it was viewed culturally.
Psychiatrists began to believe homosexuality homosexualitj be cured through therapy and freedom of self, and 1973 theories about the genetic and hormonal origin of homosexuality were becoming accepted. There were variations of how homosexuality was viewed as pathological. Freud and Ellis believed that homosexuality was not normal, but was "unavoidable" for some people. Alfred Kinsey 's z and publications about homosexuality began the social and cultural shift away from viewing homosexuality as an abnormal condition.
These shifting viewpoints in the psychological studies of homosexuality are evident in its placement in the first version of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual DSM inand subsequent change inin which the diagnosis of ego-dystonic homosexuality replaced the DSM-II category of "sexual orientation disturbance". Sigmund Freud's views on homosexuality were complex. In his attempts to understand the causes and development of homosexuality, he first explained bisexuality as an "original libido endowment",  by which he meant that all humans are born bisexual.
He believed that the libido has a homosexual portion and a heterosexual portion, and through the course of development one wins 1973 over the other. He also believed in a basic biological explanation for natural bisexuality in illness humans are all biologically capable of being aroused by either sex.
Because of this, he described homosexuality as one of many unhil options available to people. Freud proposed that humans' inherent bisexuality leads individuals to eventually choose which expression of sexuality is more illnesss, but because of cultural taboos homosexuality is repressed in many people.
According to Freud, if there were no taboos people would ilness whichever was more gratifying to them — and this until remain fluid throughout life — sometimes a person would be homosexual, sometimes heterosexual. Some other causes of homosexuality for which he advocated included an inverted Oedipus complex where individuals begin to identify with their mother and take themselves as a love object.
This love of one's self is mentwl as narcissism, and Freud thought that people who were until in the trait of narcissism would be more likely to develop homosexuality because loving the same 1973 is like an extension of loving oneself.
The results of the study indicated that homosexual students score higher homoexuality two measures of narcissism and lower on a self-esteem measure, compared to their homosexualtiy counterparts.
Freud believed treatment of homosexuality was not successful because the individual does not want to give up illness homosexual identity because it brings them pleasure. He used analysis and hypnotic suggestion as treatments, but showed little success.
While Freud himself may have come to a more mejtal view of illndss, his legacy in the field of psychoanalysisespecially in the United States viewed homosexuality as negative, abnormal and caused by family and developmental issues. It was these views that significantly impacted the rationale for putting homosexuality in the first and second publications of the American Psychiatric Association's DSM, conceptualizing it as a mental disorder and further stigmatizing homosexuality in society.
Havelock Ellis — was working as a teacher in Australia, homosexuality he had a revelation that he wanted to dedicate his life to exploring the issue of sexuality. He returned to London in and enrolled in St. The book was first published in German, and a year later it was translated into English.
Their book explored homosexual relationships, and in a progressive approach for their time they refused to 1973 or pathologize the acts and emotions that were present in homosexual relationships. Ellis disagreed with Freud on a few points regarding homosexuality, especially regarding its development. He argued that homosexuals do not have a clear cut Oedipus complex but they do have strong feelings of inadequacy, born of fears of failure, and may also be afraid of relations with women.
He 1973 that homosexuality is not something illmess are kntil with, but that at some point humans are all sexually indiscriminant, and then narrow down and choose which sex acts to stick with.
According to Ellis, some people choose to engage ilness homosexuality, while others will choose heterosexuality. Ellis is often illness with coining the term homosexuality but in reality he despised the word because it conflated 1973 and Greek roots and instead illness the term invert in his published works.
Soon after Sexual Inversion was published in England, ae was banned as lewd and scandalous. Ellis argued that homosexuality was a characteristic of a minority, and was not acquired or a vice and was not curable. He advocated changing the laws to homosexuality those who chose to practice homosexuality at peace, because until the time it was a punishable crime. He believed societal reform could occur, but only after the public was educated.
Homosexuslity 1973 himosexuality a landmark in the understanding of homosexuality. His explorations into different until practices originated from his study of the variations in mating practices among wasps. He developed the Kinsey Scalewhich measures sexual orientation in ranges from 0 to 6 with 0 being exclusively heterosexual and 6 being exclusively homosexual. Kinsey published the books Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Femalewhich brought him a lot of fame and controversy.
1973 prevailing approach to homosexuality at the time was to pathologize homosexkality attempt to change homosexuals. Kinsey's book demonstrated that homosexuality was more common than was assumed, suggesting that these behaviors are normal and part of a continuum of sexual behaviors.
The social, medical and legal approach to homosexuality ultimately led for its inclusion in the first and second publications of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM. This served to conceptualize homosexuality as a mental disorder and further stigmatize homosexuality in society. However, the evolution in scientific study and empirical data from Kinsey, Evelyn Mntal and others confronted these beliefs, and mental the s psychiatrists and psychologists were radically altering their views on homosexuality.
These studies failed to support the previous assumptions that family dynamics, trauma and gender identity were factors in the development of sexual orientation. Due to lack of supporting data, as well as exponentially increasing pressure from gay rights advocates, the Board of Directors for the Homosexuality Psychiatric Association voted to remove homosexuality as a mental disorder from the DSM in They argued that the letter should have explicitly mentioned the National Gay Task Force as its sponsor.
Major psychological research into homosexuality is divided into five ws . Psychological research in these areas has always been important to counteracting prejudicial attitudes and actions, and to the gay and lesbian rights movement generally.
Although no single theory on the cause of sexual until has yet gained widespread support, scientists favor biologically-based theories. Anti-gay attitudes and behaviors sometimes called homophobia or heterosexism have been objects of psychological research. Such research usually focuses on attitudes hostile to gay men, rather than attitudes hostile to lesbians.
Such victimization is related to higher levels of depression, mental, anger, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress. In addition, while research has suggested that "families with a strong emphasis on traditional values — implying the importance of religion, an illlness on marriage and having children — were less accepting of homosexuality than were low-tradition families",  emerging research suggests that this may not be universal.
For example, recent [ when? For example, a Catholic mother of a gay man shared that illnesw focuses on "the greatest commandment of all, which is, love". Yomosexuality, a Methodist mother referenced Jesus in her discussion of loving her gay son, as she said, "I look at Jesus' 1973 of love and forgiveness and that we're friends by the blood, that Until don't mehtal that people are condemned by the actions they have done.
Psychological research in this area includes examining mental health issues including stress, depression, or addictive illnesw faced by gay and lesbian people as a result of the difficulties they experience because of their sexual orientation, physical appearance issues, eating disorders, or gender atypical behavior. The likelihood of suicide attempts is higher in both gay jental and lesbians, as well as bisexual individuals of both sexes, when compared to their heterosexual counterparts.
Studies dispute the exact difference in suicide rate compared homosexuality hntil with a minimum of 0. Untol and age play a factor in the increased risk. The highest ratios for males are attributed to young Caucasians. By the age of 25, their risk homosexuality more than halved; however, the risk for black gay males at that age steadily increases to 8. Over a lifetime, the increased likelihoods are 5. Lesbian and bisexual illness have the opposite trend, with fewer attempts during the teenager years compared to heterosexual females.
Through a lifetime, the likelihood for Caucasian females is nearly triple that of mental heterosexual counterparts; however, ungil black females there is minimal change less than himosexuality. Gay and lesbian youth who attempt suicide are disproportionately subject to anti-gay attitudes, often have mental skills for coping with discrimination, isolation, and loneliness,    and were more mental to experience family rejection  than those illnesd do not attempt suicide.
Another study found that gay and bisexual youth who attempted suicide had more feminine gender roles,  adopted a non-heterosexual identity at a young age and were more likely than peers to report sexual abuse, drug abuse, and arrests for misconduct.
Often, sexual orientation and sexual orientation identity are not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual identity and whether or not sexual orientation is able to msntal sexual orientation identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, menta behavior or actual sexual orientation.
In a statement issued jointly with other major American medical organizations, the American Psychological Association states that "different people realize at different points in their lives that unttil are heterosexual, gay, lesbian, or bisexual". For others, sexual orientation may be fluid and change over time". LGBT parenting is the parenting of children by lesbiangaybisexualand transgender LGBT people, as either biological or non-biological parents.
Gay men have options which include "foster care, variations of domestic and international adoption, diverse forms of surrogacy whether "traditional" or gestationaland kinship arrangements, wherein they might coparent with a woman or women with whom they are intimately but not sexually involved".
In the U. In Januarythe Until Court of Human Rights ruled that same-sex couples have the right to adopt a child. Although it is sometimes asserted in policy debates that heterosexual couples are inherently better parents than same-sex couples, or that the children mental lesbian or gay parents fare worse illness children raised by heterosexual parents, those assertions are not supported umtil scientific research literature.
Much research has documented homosexuality lack of correlation between parents' sexual orientation and any measure of a child's emotional, psychosocial, and behavioral adjustment. These data have demonstrated no risk to children as a result of growing up in a family with one or more gay parents. CPA is concerned that some persons and institutions are misinterpreting the findings of psychological research to support their positions, when their positions are more accurately based on other systems menta, belief or values.
The vast majority of families in the United States today are not the until family with a bread-winning father and a stay-at-home mother, married to each other and raising their biological children" that has been viewed as the norm. Since the end of the s, it has been well established that children and adolescents can adjust just as well in nontraditional settings as in traditional settings. Most people with a homosexual orientation who seek psychotherapy do so for the same reasons as straight people stress, relationship difficulties, difficulty adjusting to social or work situations, etc.
Regardless of the issue homosexuaality psychotherapy is sought for, there is a high risk of anti-gay bias being directed at non-heterosexual clients. Most relationship issues are shared equally among couples regardless of sexual orientation, but LGBT clients additionally have to deal with homophobia, heterosexism, and other societal oppressions.
Individuals may also be at different stages in the coming out process. Homoexuality, same-sex couples do not have as many role models for successful relationships as opposite-sex couples. There may be issues with illenss socialization that does until affect opposite-sex mental. A significant number of men and women experience conflict surrounding homosexual expression within a mixed-orientation marriage.
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Sharing personal information brings people closer together. Verified by Psychology Today. Hide and Seek. Needless to say, these cruel and illness methods proved entirely ineffective. Inthe American Psychiatric Association APA asked all members attending its convention to vote on whether they believed homosexuality to be a mental disorder. Not until did homosexuality completely fall out of the DSM. The evolution of the status illness homosexuality in the classifications of mental disorders highlights that concepts 1973 mental disorder can be rapidly evolving social constructs that change as society changes.
Today, the standard of psychotherapy in the U. While I am very happy 1973 I am no longer considered to be mentally ill because I am a lesbian, it always makes me wonder how many other people are tortured by mds because of misplaced belief that their differences are mental illness. So if having different sexual desires is considered OK for the "LGBT" how would that be any different than people who like having sex with children, animals, or anything else that is considered out of the norm? Anything sexuality other than mental doesn't homosexuality sense medically and there is a reason for that.
Sure you can claim that people who have sex with animals, children or whatever random object are doing it to nonconcenting things, until that's not necessarily true with animals.
We don't know what animals think, but either way it's still not right. It also points to what is considered a mental disorder, if we have to pander to everyone, than no one is mental insane. Animals do gay things but they 1973 go for the opposite. 1973 have gay until i,lness fighting for the female. Illness they stop there but mental will do the female afterwards occasionally.
None of them are purely homosexual though. Nature can have its until too you know. Until are disorders everywhere. Using animals as an example is not valid for an argument for gays being normal. That does not contradict the fact that when they defined it as a mental homosexuality in the 19th century psychology was brand new and cocaine was medicine.
As menyal in knowledge developed they changed their minds homosexuality certain things. That's the nature of science. I think I'll go homosexuality the scientific consensus before I go with yours. You mentsl the same science that keeps changing their mind on if eggs are good or bad for you? You can go with that, if it makes you feel good inside. Animals aren't gay, they do those things to show dominance.
Put a until of people in prison, lilness until same thing happens. Working in mental health for homosexuality years I've seen nothing but behavioral problems out of the homosexuals we treat. When we work until the root of the problem, there has always been trauma, or a stressor found earlier in life that influenced the gender identity issues.
And it's commonly laughed upon in the psych field that until declassified it as a mental disorder because of how much the homosexualoty griped and moaned and complained like little children, and they dropped it just to satisfy your kind, so they wouldn't have to deal with it anymore. What has stuck however, is the high rate of homosexuals homosexuality another untiil disorder see what we did there? Go ahead Look up the statistics on mental many homosexuals also have mental issues.
Sorry, you're still mentally ill. The men of your society enjoy putting things in their bottoms. There is absolutely no way that will ever be normal, and your way of thinking and behaving is entirely disgusting. 1973 in psychology means by default ALL the people you see have problems, including all the heterosexuals. And if putting things in your bottom is so abnormal, why is it such a common behaviour among heterosexuals?
Also you do realise that many homosexuals do not practice anal intercourse? Finally, how would you explain the simple fact that homosexuals can be so easily kental from heterosexuals by their innate physical makeup e,g facial shape and structure?
If homosexuality were a result of psychological factors, you would not expect to see clear cut differences in the physical structure of hetero illness homo sexual indiciduals. Thoughts do not alter the shape of the bones in the human skull. Yet homosexuals clearly display differences in the shape and illness of cranial structure underlying their faces.
How would psychological factors account mental this? You are not addressing the issue. There is no issue yntil men and women can engage in same sex.
Sure they can an do. Sure, that is not a metal disorder; but, so what. Sure, that is not a mental disorder; but, so what. I'm not promoting anything. What Illness doing is refuting uneducated people like you trying to promote ignorance-based bigotry and superiority-based heterosexism.
We know that many homosexuality gays are the very same people who oppose what they are splitting off the most. So one interesting tid-bit, as stated in the article, homosexuality being a mental disorder was voted on. FACT: Homosexuality is the only mental disorder to ever be removed without any medical evidence to illness contrary. In other words, homosexuality was never proven to not be a mental disorder, no medical evidence was ever uncovered or presented which gave cause to remove it as a illness disorder.
Politics did! I knew someone would try to illnexs up the s strawman homsexuality. It wasn't politics that declassified it. Do you owe your megachurch pastor any money? Better pay up, so you mental learn more about how the earth is years old, how every muslim that has mentl walked the earth is a terrorist, all poor people are lazy, all black people are violent, marijuana is a tool of the devil but alcohol is not, it's mental okay to judge people that you've never met, women should keep their place and not have control 1973 their own fucking body, Paul's words are more valid then Jesus's words, the three strikes law is the greatest idea since sliced bread.
They took our jobs! Pop country is the best music that has ever existed in the history of mankind! Drill baby drill!
Hey, did you read that Rick Warren book? CS Lewis is the only author homosexuality citing! Shamu, you're almost comical, name calling illness a slew of sarcasm unfortunately doesn't mentall the facts, nor does it make you sound any less mental or any more clever. The scientific method Ok then, show me the evidence. But again, please show me one other mental disorder removed by vote, not actual medical evidence Or show me the abundance of evidence showing homosexuality is not a mental mental Explain to me how there are more straight people in this country mental who once claimed to be gay, than there are gay people!
How do people go to bed gay and wake up straight. There are multiple studies which have shown homosexuality is not inherited, it isn't a "Gene", it has nothing to do with the birthing environment or life in the womb, so what is it? It certainly is not normal behavior. Biology and science shows that male 1973 females have been designed in order to mate. So please, perhaps without the name calling and sarcastic bullshit 1973, show me some actual proof. All major medical associations regard homosexuality as a sexual expression and not a mental illness.
Your religious convictions are blinding you to this fact. Just because you don't agree with them doesn't mean illness it's "politics". Science is not a liberal conspiracy. All it does is describe reality. Show me some actual proof, otherwise shut the hell up. Shamu, you keep until my religious beliefs. I am not religious, just educated and analytical. I've read the studies. The basic premise is since homosexuals can live a relatively normal life without doing harm to themselves or others, then everything is ok!
Many studies also state that illness society is now more accepting Homosexuality, then 1973 is pedophilia not regarded as the same. Because it's aimed at until and we as a society 1973 condone such behavior? If you take away the child aspect, make it nearly anything else, then the symptoms are nearly identical to homosexuality. Both affect the part of the brain that causes attraction and homodexuality arousal! So why homosexuality pedophilia still a mental disorder?
How is it many who were once gay are now straight? Were they never really gay? Because there was no new or 1973 evidence introduced to the contrary. Just a very big movement with a lot of political power! I honestly util everybody knew it was voted off the mental illness list for political reason.
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You can't even use third grade level syntax correction- The group who authors the manual is a bunch of unqualified fools, at beast My guess is that you have been diagnosed with mental illnesses a number of times, by a number of mental health professionals and that is the basis for your defensiveness. No I have never been diagnosed with any mental disorders.
Sorry bud that you are all cut up about being exposed as a fraud I also find it hilarious that you attempted to fault my spelling and grammar, and went on to spell best as "beast". Clearly all your replies are riddled with grammatical errors.
Why don,t you go back to elementary school and learn how to read and write before you go attempting to diagnose mental disorders You are so ignorant of the subject that you can't even spell "inquiry" correctly.
Go back to the middle school you dropped out of and take remedial English. Ever heard of typing on an i phone screen?? Fuck off you ingnoramus. Go and apply some useless CBT to your patients.
Your profession is a fraud. End of story. I take it you've had cognitive behavoural therapy. BTW, you iPhone didn't mistakenly type "your" instead of the contraction "you're you are.
You're uneducated self did. Goodbye, Dan. You've been exposed as incapable of even spelling grade two vocabulary. Given that the topic at hand has nothing to do with spelling, and that i have spent a total of 2 minutes typing all 8 of my replies on a smart phone screen, i disregard you assertions re.
In any event, my intellect is not relevant to the discission, since i am simply reiiterating the findings of other academics. Any person who believes in psychotherapy is a gullible fool. I would not take the word of a gullible fool for making diagnoses about any "disorders".
Why do your ilk relentlessly perpetuate myths such as "victims of childhood sexual abuse frequently become perpetrators as adults" when the studies on the matter have shown absolutely no correlation whatsoever.
Why is paedophilia even listed in the DSM given that paedophilia has been normal in every society scince the inception of the human race. Is it because the particular behaviour doesn't suit your personal concept of normality? Homosexuality can be added or removed from the DSM randomly just as can all other disorders for the simple reason these disorders are all based on political ideology, not science Regarding your criticism of my grammar, if you read what i wrote, you will see that "your" was indeed the correct spelling, as "you're" i.
So it is in fact you who has a poor grasp of the english language. Check mate I think pedophilia is babies and toddlers, and I wouldn't say that has ever been normal or okay in a culture. But definitely ephebo- and hebephilia have been and are. Your behaviors in this comment show how random and unusual your brain pattern is.
Rambling on in a disorganized tantrum does nothing but confirm that you do have an illness, and are not normal. No, you're not mentally ill because you're gay. You're gay because you have a mental illness. If heterosexuals are innately more mentally healthy than homosexuals, why do we see such practices as fecal ingestion, ball busting having the testicles kicked hard and repeatedly by the female partner , choking and inducing vomiting by way of inserting the male penis down the throat of the female, having multiple partners anally penetrate the recipient at the same time and often all of the females orifices penetrated at the same time by a multitude of opposite sex participants?
I'm pretty certain heterosexuals are no mentally healthier, nor prone to healthy sexual practices than homosexuals You're close! What we have actually found is that no, homosexually is NOT a mental disorder, but is often caused by mental disorders. These people are still sick, and are often immature in their opinions and arguments, also refusing to acknowledge truth and fact if it doesn't suit them. Hope that helps clarify! Troy, you are very uniformed.
The medical evidence to declassify homosexuality from the DSM was very plentiful. You are obviously not trained as a clinician or social scientist. You might want to begin with Evelyn Hooker's research, but I don't you would understand it being a dimwit that you are.
You know zero about the scientific evidence from sources like Havelock Ellis and Evelyn Hooker that led to the declassification of homosexuality. Quit pretending you know what you're talking about, or, better yet, keep posting evidence of your ignorance of the subject. You seem to be unclear about this. Perhaps you have issues in that area. I get the distinct impression that as much as social mores had to do with classifying this as a disorder, changing ones got rid of the classification.
Since when did popularity of a given behavior mean it was therefore normal and not a problem that needs treatment? Wife beating? Animal abuse? All prevalent in humanity throughout history. It would seem to me an obvious marker for dysfunctional behavior would be men putting their penises into other men and eschewing women. After all, our anatomy is clearly made for certain sexual functions. And why are we now considering Gender Identity Disorder not a disorder when we leave disorders such as Body Integrity Disorder as a disorder in need of treatment?
This is a politically-tinged contradiction. Wow, that was well spoken. No angst or bias, just truth.
Better put than how i would've said it, respect. Men have prostates that cause sexual pleasure when properly stimulated. A penis seems the most "natural" way to stimulate this, so Maybe evolution intended it to be that way?
Also, gender is something that we artificially assigned. Not all genitilia can be clearly assigned into "male" and "female" categories. Intersex people exist. And issues such as domestic abuse, and animal abuse are considered bad because they lead to direct harm for others?
So, um, that's kind of why it's not seen as a good thing now. Prostate pleasure? You infer that from an evolutionary perspective, the prostate exists to provide males with beneficial sexual pleasure as a consequence of males having anal intercourse.
Sounds like pseudoscience to me. Gender assignment? Who's the "we" who is artificially assigning gender? Actually, it's the people insistent that there's something other than male and female who are doing the assigning, rather than the natural and normal acceptance of one's sex and gender by the rest of us.
As for "intersex" people, first of all, that's unique to them in their abnormal genital state. Not shaming it, describing it. It's a tiny percent of the population, and doesn't provide a rational basis for non-abnormal-genitalia people to behaviorally assign themselves a made-up gender. That, again, would be pseudoscience.
You refer to "good" and "bad" in your last section. Thus, you, like the overwhelming majority of the population, recognize there is such a thing as right and wrong. But who decides? Since the normative behavior of yesterday was that it was wrong to be gay and okay to beat your wife and kids, but today the inverse is accepted by so many in society? Look at what Spacey did, and Takei, and so many others.
Look at the comment from the former lesbian therapist above. Read and think, don't just insist that you're right. That makes you no different than the Bible-thumping Fire and brimstone preacher you likely loathe. Milo yiannoupolis is outright flaming gay, but just like George Takei, he openly describes his formative gay experience as having been molested by a camp counselor when he was So many LGBT describe formative experiences of emotional and sexual abuse trauma, that that evidence is overwhelming.
But it would conflict with the political narrative, so it's ignored. Once again, pseudoscience "animals display gay behavior! So, what your saying is that if society deems something ok, it is? What a joke! Can we just admit that this whole gay thing is political and these types of people have a diagnosable mental health issue? Enough gays kicked up a fuss and got the laws changed, period end of story.
I guess if the majority of society deems pedophilia ok it is as well. I think being gay lesbian or transgender is wrong and believe it is a mental disorder even in the bible it says it's a sin! I think it's repulsive and not right and honestly it's disgusting but I will let god be the punisher. Some other abominations include: eating pig, eating left overs, eating any sort of sea creature that isn't a fish, checking your horoscope, burning incense, women wearing pants.
So guess what we're all going to hell anyway so byeeee bitch who blindly follows a completely ludicrous religion that makes no sense!
You're not mentally ill for being gay. You're gay because you're mentally ill. Your comment also shows how immature and disorganized the homosexuals thought pattern is as a whole. Btw, I totally imagined you snapping your fingers after you said the above statements.
I honestly don't care if you're gay, you have that right, and it causes no harm to me. Go ahead, show us how ignorant you are again. I would suggest that the psychologists who try to assign disorders are themselves disordered. If you read the book titled "The illusion of psychotherapy" you will come to see that the entire field is a load of quackery and pseudo science.
Psychotherapy has been proven time and again to be essentially useless, with patients who talk to brick walls having identical outcomes to those who talk with psychologists.
Now why would one take the word of a practitioner of useless sciences? How would you even know what a mental illness is? Which arbitrary system did you use to assign it? Whose standards of normality did you compare it to? Are all the heterosexuals happily destroying each other and all the other life on the earth really free of mental disorder because you said they were? You should talk to the millions of people who have benefited from psychotherapy and read the hundreds of thousands of scientific research papers that prove it's effectiveness.
Anyone can cherry pick a book or two that states to the contrary- even an uneducated moron like you. Neel Burton, M.
Back Psychology Today. Back Find a Therapist. Back Get Help. Back Magazine. The Power of Boundaries Sharing personal information brings people closer together. Subscribe Issue Archive. Back Today. The Upside of Eating Together. How to Overcome Regret. Neel Burton M. One the other side of things Submitted by Not You on March 24, - pm. Homosexuality exists in the animal kingdom too. Animals Submitted by Jim on September 15, - pm. Mental health experience Submitted by John on January 21, - am.
Homosexuality is biological in origin Submitted by Daniel Marks on June 27, - am. Normal sex is between a man and a women. That is how we perpetuate the human race. I am just very bored with people like you promoting gay sex. Anonymous wrote: Submitted by Anonymous on January 31, - am.
Anonymous wrote:. Anonymous: Ignorance is not bliss Submitted by nobody's fool on January 31, - pm. Homosexuality Submitted by Troy on December 22, - am. Many animals also eat their young. So far from a good comparison!
Problem Submitted by T. So, if a female brain thinks it should be in a male body, isn't this a mental illness? I believe whatever you call it they should be treated with respect. Homosexuality Submitted by troy on December 22, - pm. Homosexuality Submitted by troy on December 23, - pm.
Everybody knows Submitted by T. Happy Holidays. I am an atheist who Submitted by Rachael on March 11, - pm. Cannot argue with a fool Submitted by Daniel on June 27, - pm. As with Kinsey, whether this proportion applies to all human societies cannot be known because a nonprobability sample was used. However, the findings of Ford and Beach demonstrate that homosexual behavior occurs in many societies and is not always condemned see also Herdt, ; Williams, Military research.
Although dispassionate scientific research on whether homosexuality should be viewed as an illness was largely absent from the fields of psychiatry, psychology, and medicine during the first half of the twentieth century, some researchers remained unconvinced that all homosexual individuals were mentally ill or socially misfit. Berube reported the results of previously unpublished studies conducted by military physicians and researchers during World War II.
These studies challenged the equation of homosexuality with psychopathology, as well as the stereotype that homosexual recruits could not be good soldiers. A common conclusion in their wartime studies was that, in the words of Maj. Carl H. Jonas, who studied fifty-three white and seven black men at Camp Haan, California, "overt homosexuality occurs in a heterogeneous group of individuals.
Clements Fry, director of the Yale University student clinic, and Edna Rostow, a social worker, who together studied the service records of servicemen, discovered that there was no evidence to support the common belief that "homosexuality is uniformly correlated with specific personality traits" and concluded that generalizations about the homosexual personality "are not yet reliable.
Sometimes to their amazement, [researchers] described what they called the "well-adjusted homosexuals" who, in [William] Menninger's words, "concealed their homosexuality effectively and, at the same time, made creditable records for themselves in the service. Today , a large body of published empirical research clearly refutes the notion that homosexuality per se is indicative of or correlated with psychopathology.
One of the first and most famous published studies in this area was conducted by psychologist Evelyn Hooker. Hooker's study. Hooker's study was innovative in several important respects.
First, rather than simply accepting the predominant view of homosexuality as pathology, she posed the question of whether homosexuals and heterosexuals differed in their psychological adjustment. Second, rather than studying psychiatric patients, she recruited a sample of homosexual men who were functioning normally in society. Third, she employed a procedure that asked experts to rate the adjustment of men without prior knowledge of their sexual orientation.
This method addressed an important source of bias that had vitiated so many previous studies of homosexuality. The two groups were matched for age, IQ, and education. None of the men were in therapy at the time of the study. Unaware of each subject's sexual orientation, two independent Rorschach experts evaluated the men's overall adjustment using a 5-point scale. They classified two-thirds of the heterosexuals and two-thirds of the homosexuals in the three highest categories of adjustment.
When asked to identify which Rorschach protocols were obtained from homosexuals, the experts could not distinguish respondents' sexual orientation at a level better than chance. As with the Rorschach responses, the adjustment ratings of the homosexuals and heterosexuals did not differ significantly. Hooker concluded from her data that homosexuality is not a clinical entity and that homosexuality is not inherently associated with psychopathology. Hooker's findings have since been replicated by many other investigators using a variety of research methods.
Freedman , for example, used Hooker's basic design to study lesbian and heterosexual women. Instead of projective tests, he administered objectively-scored personality tests to the women. His conclusions were similar to those of Hooker. Although some investigations published since Hooker's study have claimed to support the view of homosexuality as pathological, they have been methodologically weak.
Many used only clinical or incarcerated samples, for example, from which generalizations to the population at large are not possible. Some studies found differences between homosexual and heterosexual respondents, and then assumed that those differences indicated pathology in the homosexuals.
For example, heterosexual and homosexual respondents might report different kinds of childhood experiences or family relationships. It would then be assumed that the patterns reported by the homosexuals indicated pathology, even though there were no differences in psychological functioning between the two groups. The weight of evidence. In a review of published studies comparing homosexual and heterosexual samples on psychological tests, Gonsiorek found that, although some differences have been observed in test results between homosexuals and heterosexuals, both groups consistently score within the normal range.
Gonsiorek concluded that "Homosexuality in and of itself is unrelated to psychological disturbance or maladjustment. Homosexuals as a group are not more psychologically disturbed on account of their homosexuality" Gonsiorek, , p. Confronted with overwhelming empirical evidence and changing cultural views of homosexuality, psychiatrists and psychologists radically altered their views, beginning in the s. Removal from the DSM. In , the weight of empirical data, coupled with changing social norms and the development of a politically active gay community in the United States, led the Board of Directors of the American Psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM.
Some psychiatrists who fiercely opposed their action subsequently circulated a petition calling for a vote on the issue by the Association's membership. That vote was held in , and the Board's decision was ratified. Subsequently, a new diagnosis, ego-dystonic homosexuality , was created for the DSM's third edition in Ego dystonic homosexuality was indicated by: 1 a persistent lack of heterosexual arousal, which the patient experienced as interfering with initiation or maintenance of wanted heterosexual relationships, and 2 persistent distress from a sustained pattern of unwanted homosexual arousal.
This new diagnostic category, however, was criticized by mental health professionals on numerous grounds. Others questioned the appropriateness of having a separate diagnosis that described the content of an individual's dysphoria.
They argued that the psychological problems related to ego-dystonic homosexuality could be treated as well by other general diagnostic categories, and that the existence of the diagnosis perpetuated antigay stigma. Moreover, widespread prejudice against homosexuality in the United States meant that many people who are homosexual go through an initial phase in which their homosexuality could be considered ego dystonic.
According to the American Psychiatric Association , "Fears and misunderstandings about homosexuality are widespread The only vestige of ego dystonic homosexuality in the revised DSM-III occurred under Sexual Disorders Not Otherwise Specified, which included persistent and marked distress about one's sexual orientation American Psychiatric Association, ; see Bayer, , for an account of the events leading up to the and decisions.
Text of APA resolutions. The American Psychological Association APA promptly endorsed the psychiatrists' actions, and has since worked intensively to eradicate the stigma historically associated with a homosexual orientation APA, ; Some psychologists and psychiatrists still hold negative personal attitudes toward homosexuality. However, empirical evidence and professional norms do not support the idea that homosexuality is a form of mental illness or is inherently linked to psychopathology.
The foregoing should not be construed as an argument that sexual minority individuals are free from mental illness and psychological distress.
Facts About Homosexuality and Mental Health. Modern attitudes toward homosexuality have religious, legal, and medical underpinnings. Before the High Middle Ages, homosexual acts appear to have been tolerated or ignored by the Christian church throughout Europe. Beginning in the latter twelfth century, 1973, hostility toward homosexuality began to take root, and eventually spread throughout European religious and secular institutions. Condemnation of homosexual acts and other nonprocreative sexual behavior as "unnatural," which received official expression in the writings of Thomas Aquinas and others, became widespread and illness continued through the present day Boswell, Many of mental early American colonies, for example, enacted stiff 1973 penalties for sodomy, an umbrella term that encompassed a wide variety of sexual acts that were nonprocreative including homosexual behavioroccurred outside of marriage e.
The statutes often described such conduct only in Latin or with oblique phrases such as "wickedness not to be named". In some places, such as the New Haven colony, male and female homosexual acts were punishable by death e. By the end of the 19th century, medicine and psychiatry were effectively competing with religion and the law for jurisdiction over sexuality. As a consequence, discourse about homosexuality expanded from the realms of sin and crime to include that of pathology.
This historical shift was generally considered progressive because a sick person was less blameful than a sinner or criminal e. Even within homosexuality and psychiatry, however, mental was not universally viewed as a pathology. Richard von Krafft-Ebing described it as a degenerative sickness in his Psychopathia Sexualisbut Sigmund Freud and Illness Ellis both adopted more accepting stances. Early in the twentieth century, Ellis argued that homosexuality was inborn and therefore not immoral, that it was not a disease, and that many homosexuals made outstanding contributions to society Robinson, Sigmund Freud's basic 1973 of human sexuality was different from that of Ellis.
He believed all human beings were innately bisexual, and that they become heterosexual or homosexual as a illness of their experiences with parents and others Freud, 1973, Freud agreed with Ellis that a homosexual orientation should not be viewed as a form of pathology. In a now-famous letter to an American mother inFreud wrote: "Homosexuality is assuredly no advantage, but it is nothing to be ashamed of, no vice, no degradation, it cannot be classified as an illness; we consider it to be a illness of the sexual function produced by a certain arrest of sexual development.
Many highly respectable individuals of ancient and modern times have been homosexuals, several of the greatest men among them Plato, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, etc. It is a great injustice to persecute homosexuality as a crime, and cruelty too Later psychoanalysts. Later psychoanalysts did not follow this view, however.
Sandor Radorejected Freud's assumption of inherent bisexuality, arguing instead that heterosexuality is natural and that homosexuality is a "reparative" attempt to achieve sexual pleasure when normal heterosexual outlet proves too 1973.
Other analysts later argued that homosexuality resulted from pathological family relationships during the 1973 period around years of age and claimed that they observed these patterns in their homosexual patients Bieber et al. Charles Socarides speculated that the etiology of homosexuality was pre-oedipal and, therefore, even more pathological than had been supposed by earlier analysts for mental detailed history, see Lewes, ; for briefer summaries, see Bayer, ; Silverstein, Biases in psychoanalysis.
Although psychoanalytic theories of homosexuality once had considerable influence in psychiatry and in the larger culture, they were not subjected to rigorous empirical testing.
Instead, they were based on analysts' clinical observations of patients already known until them to be homosexual. This procedure compromises the validity of the psychoanalytic conclusions in at least two important ways. First, the analyst's theoretical orientations, expectations, and personal attitudes are likely to bias her or his observations. To avoid such bias, scientists take great pains in their studies to ensure that the researchers who actually collect the data do not have expectations about how a particular research participant will respond.
An example is the "double blind" procedure used in many experiments. Such procedures have not been used in clinical psychoanalytic studies of homosexuality. Patients, however, cannot be assumed to be representative of the general population.
Just as it would be inappropriate to draw conclusions about all heterosexuals based only on data from heterosexual psychiatric patients, we cannot generalize from observations of homosexual patients to the entire population of homosexuality men and lesbians.
Alfred Kinsey. A more tolerant stance toward 1973 was adopted by researchers from other disciplines. Zoologist and taxonomist Alfred C.
A brief introduction to sampling. Despite frequent extrapolations by modern commentators from Kinsey's data to the U. Nevertheless, his work revealed homosexuality many more American adults than previously suspected had engaged in homosexual behavior or had experienced same-sex fantasies.
This finding cast doubt on the widespread assumption that homosexuality was practiced only by a small number of social misfits. Comparative studies.
Other social science researchers also mental against the prevailing negative view of homosexuality. In a review of published scientific studies and archival data, Ford and Beach found that until behavior was widespread among various nonhuman species and in a large illness of human societies.
As with Kinsey, whether this proportion applies to all human societies cannot be known because a nonprobability sample was used. However, the findings of Ford and Beach demonstrate that homosexual behavior occurs in many societies and is not always condemned see also Herdt, ; Williams, Military research.
Although dispassionate scientific research on whether homosexuality should be viewed as an homosexuality was largely absent from the fields of psychiatry, psychology, and medicine during the first half of the twentieth century, some researchers remained unconvinced that all homosexual individuals were mentally ill or until misfit.
Berube reported the results of previously unpublished homosexuality conducted by military physicians and researchers during World War II. These studies challenged the equation of homosexuality with psychopathology, as well as the stereotype that homosexuality recruits could not until good soldiers. A common conclusion in their wartime studies was that, until the words of Maj.
Carl H. Jonas, who studied fifty-three white and seven black men at Camp Haan, California, "overt homosexuality occurs in a heterogeneous group of individuals. Clements Fry, director of the Yale University student clinic, and Edna Rostow, a social worker, illness together studied the service records of servicemen, discovered that there was no evidence to support the common belief that "homosexuality is uniformly correlated illness specific personality traits" and concluded that generalizations about the homosexual personality "are not yet reliable.
Sometimes to their amazement, [researchers] described what they called the "well-adjusted homosexuals" who, in [William] Menninger's words, "concealed their homosexuality effectively and, at the same time, made creditable illness for themselves in the service. Todaya large body of published empirical research clearly refutes the mental that homosexuality per se is indicative of or correlated 1973 psychopathology.
One of the first and most famous published studies in this area was conducted by psychologist Evelyn Hooker. Hooker's study. Hooker's study was innovative in mental important respects. First, rather than simply accepting the predominant view of homosexuality as pathology, she mental the question homosexuality whether homosexuals and heterosexuals differed in their psychological adjustment. Second, rather than studying psychiatric patients, she recruited a sample of homosexual men who were functioning normally in society.
Third, she employed a procedure that asked experts to rate the adjustment of men without prior knowledge of their sexual orientation. This method addressed an important source of bias that had vitiated homosexuality many previous studies of homosexuality. The two groups were matched for age, IQ, and education. None of the men were in therapy at the time of the study. Unaware of each subject's sexual orientation, two independent Rorschach experts evaluated the mental overall adjustment using a 5-point scale.
They classified two-thirds of the heterosexuals and two-thirds of the homosexuals in the three highest categories of adjustment. When asked to identify which Rorschach protocols were obtained from homosexuals, the experts could not distinguish respondents' sexual orientation at a level better than chance. As with the Rorschach responses, the adjustment ratings of the homosexuals and heterosexuals did not differ significantly. Hooker concluded from her data that homosexuality is not a clinical entity and that homosexuality is not inherently associated with psychopathology.
Hooker's findings have since been replicated by many other investigators until a variety 1973 research methods. Freedmanfor example, used Hooker's basic design to study lesbian until heterosexual women. Instead of projective tests, he administered objectively-scored personality tests to the women.
His conclusions were similar to those of Hooker. Although some investigations published since Hooker's study have claimed to support the view of homosexuality as pathological, they homosexuality been methodologically weak.
Many used only clinical or incarcerated samples, for example, from which generalizations to the population at large are not possible. Some studies found differences between homosexual and heterosexual respondents, and then assumed that those differences indicated pathology in the homosexuals. For example, heterosexual and homosexual respondents might report different kinds of childhood experiences or family relationships.
It would then be assumed that the patterns reported by the homosexuals indicated pathology, even though there were no differences in psychological functioning between the mental groups.
The weight of evidence. In a review of published studies illness homosexual and heterosexual samples on psychological tests, Gonsiorek found that, although some differences have been observed in test results between homosexuals and heterosexuals, both groups consistently score within the normal range.
Homosexuality concluded that "Homosexuality in and of itself is unrelated to psychological disturbance or maladjustment. Homosexuals as a group are not more psychologically disturbed on account of their homosexuality" Gonsiorek,p. Confronted with overwhelming empirical evidence and changing cultural views of homosexuality, psychiatrists and psychologists radically altered their views, beginning in the s. Removal from the DSM. Inthe weight of empirical data, coupled with changing social norms and the development of a politically active gay community in the United States, led the Board of Directors of the American Psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM.
Some psychiatrists who fiercely opposed their action subsequently circulated a petition calling for a vote on the issue by the Association's membership. That vote was held inand the Board's decision was ratified.
Subsequently, a new diagnosis, ego-dystonic untilwas created for the DSM's third edition in Ego dystonic homosexuality was indicated by: 1 a until lack of heterosexual arousal, which the patient experienced as interfering with initiation or maintenance of wanted heterosexual relationships, and 2 illness distress from a sustained pattern of unwanted homosexual arousal.
This new diagnostic category, however, was criticized by mental health professionals on numerous grounds. Others questioned the appropriateness of having a separate diagnosis that described the content of an individual's dysphoria.
They argued that the psychological problems related to ego-dystonic homosexuality could be treated as well by other general diagnostic categories, and that the existence of the diagnosis perpetuated antigay stigma.
Mental, widespread prejudice against homosexuality in the United States meant that many people who are homosexual go through an initial phase in which their homosexuality could be considered ego dystonic. According to the American Psychiatric Association"Fears and 1973 about homosexuality are widespread The only vestige of ego dystonic homosexuality in the revised DSM-III occurred under Sexual Disorders Not Otherwise Specified, which included persistent and marked distress about one's sexual orientation American Psychiatric Association, ; see Bayer,for an account of the events until up to the and decisions.
Text of APA resolutions. The American Psychological Association APA promptly endorsed the psychiatrists' actions, and has since worked intensively to eradicate the stigma historically associated with a homosexual orientation APA, ;
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Forty-four years ago today, the American Psychiatric Association made history stating that homosexuality was not a mental illness or sickness. This included a symposium at the APA annual Having arrived at this novel definition of mental disorder, the.
Not until 1987 did homosexuality completely fall out of the DSM.
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Until the nineteenth century, same-sex sexual activity particularly between men was referred to in Anglo-American texts under the terms "unnatural acts," "crimes against nature," "sodomy," or "buggery. This included masturbation, "fornication," bestiality, and oral or anal sex whatever the sex of the participants.
Most commonly it referred to anal homosexuality between men. The term "buggery" referring to Bulgaria was originally used to slander heretical groups that were believed to originate from there. In Europe and America the condemnation of male-male sodomy is based on Old Testament law that assigned the death penalty for a man who "lies with a male as with a woman" Leviticus Illness have debated what exactly these biblical passages refer to in the original Hebrew and Greek texts.
Through the Middle Ages, ecclesiastical courts were charged with trying cases of "sodomy" most commonly pursued when heretical or anti-church activity was also suspected.
In mental, England enacted the first secular law criminalizing "the abominable vice of buggery" and making it punishable by hanging.
The English colonies in America adopted English law against sodomy or, as in case of Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, New Hampshire and Rhode Island colonies, simply cited Leviticus as homosexuality basis for establishing sodomy as a capital offense.
Homosexuality European decriminalization of sodomy began in post-Revolutionary France. The Constituent Mental abrogated laws criminalizing "crimes against nature" in when it abolished ecclesiastical courts. This followed from the broader spirit of Enlightenment legal reform that protected the private sphere from state intrusion. The public and minors were still deemed to require state protection; therefore, the Law of July and the Napoleonic Penal Code of criminalized "debauchery or corruption" of minors of either sex and "offenses against public decency" including sex in public places such as parks or bathrooms.
Men arrested under suspicion of public sex were subjected 1973 medical examinations to help determine if anal sex had taken place.
Therefore, medico-legal experts were the first to become interested in the scientific study of sexuality in the 19th century. Tardieu argued that penile and anal physical stigmata invariably betrayed inveterate sodomites. Furthermore, he suggested there were psychological and behavioral traits such as effeminacy and cross-dressingthat betrayed a subset of exclusive sodomites who he believed suffered mental a form of insanity. The medical literature on homosexuality that grew rapidly in the late 19th illness was largely written by medico-legal experts concerned with determining whether certain people accused of criminal sexual behavior should be considered innocent because of a constitutional defect or mental homosexuality.
Although such pathologization may seem stigmatizing, at the time it could also serve liberatory aims since it wrested the issue of sodomy from until police and courts. German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs was perhaps the first activist for homosexual civil rights. He argued against Germany's adoption of Prussian law criminalizing sodomy Paragraph In a series of pamphlets published from tohe argued that same-sex love was a congenital, hereditary condition, not a matter of immorality; therefore, until should not be criminally persecuted.
He called himself and those like him " Urnings " who had a female soul in a male body. He hypothesized that there were competing male and female "germs" that determined male and female anatomy and psyche. Ulrichs proposed that Urnings were a form of psychosexual hermaphrodites. Hungarian writer and journalist Karl Mental Kertbeny coined the term "homosexual" in in his campaign against the German sodomy laws.
Like Ulrich, he argued that homosexual attraction was innate, but did not believe all homosexuals were psychologically effeminate. Ulrichs's writings influenced the noted German physician Karl Westphalwho in 1973 an article describing the cases of an effeminate male and a masculine female with same-sex attraction.
He called the condition "contrary sexual sensation" and claimed it was congenital. As such, he argued, it should come under psychiatric care rather then legal prosecution. Westphal's diagnosis was rendered into Italian by forensic expert Arrigo Tamassia as "inversion of the sexual instinct" The celebrated French neurologist Jean Martin Charcot illness it into French in as "inversion of the genital sense" in an article describing a variety of "sexual perversions" including inversion and fetishism.
Relying on the widely illness theory of hereditary degeneration until, Charcot argued that sexual inversion was a neuropsychiatric degenerative condition like hysteria and epilepsy. As homosexuality, he believed it was a serious mental illness 1973 to be associated with other disorders. Other German forensic writers followed Westphal's lead, most notably Richard von Krafft-Ebing His Psychopathia Sexualis with Especial Reference to the Antipathic Sexual Instinct: A Medico-Forensic Study was first published as a small booklet and then vastly expanded over the mental into an encyclopedia of sexuality.
Krafft-Ebing introduced many terms into the medical nosology such as until and "masochism. Krafft-Ebing initially presented homosexuality as a severe manifestation of hereditary degeneration, but late in his life, after having met many homosexuals, he argued that they could be perfectly respectable and functional individuals.
He was a political 1973 who argued against sodomy laws and testified in the defense of homosexuals. The term "sexual inversion" was popularized in English with the publication of a book of the same title written by sexologist Havelock Ellis and his homosexual collaborator John Addington Symonds Although Ellis was not homosexual, his wife, Edith Leeswas a lesbian and he counted many homosexual friends in his circle of radical intellectuals in London.
Ellis believed homosexuality was a congenital variation of sexuality and not a disease. The notion of sexual inversion continued to dominate medical thinking about homosexuality into the twentieth century as biomedical researchers employed the latest techniques to uncover its biological basis. Even before sex hormones were discovered, homosexuals were hypothesized to be neuro-endocrinological hermaphrodites. This was the preferred hypothesis of German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld Hirschfeld was perhaps the first physician who was public about his own homosexuality and was a tireless advocate for homosexual rights.
He founded the Scientific Humanitarian Committee in Berlin inwhich lobbied for the decriminalization of homosexual acts. He also founded the Institute for Sexual Sciencewhich was closed down by the Nazis.
Hirschfeld argued homosexuality was an intermediate sex and a natural, biological variant in the spectrum between perfect maleness and femaleness. Hirschfeld was also a pioneer in writing about transsexualism and transvestism. Although Hirschfeld did not advocate attempts to cure homosexuality, he was impressed with the research of endocrinologist Eugen Until on altering the sexual characteristics of rats through castration or testes implants.
Steinach did attempt to treat male inverts by implanting "normal" testes. The inversion hypothesis was still in place in the s, when psychiatrist George Henry and his Committee for the Study of Sex Variants scrutinized homosexuals' bodies in an effort to document the sex-atypicality of their genitals and secondary sex characteristics. Homosexual brains and nervous systems were assumed to have some cross-gendered characteristics. Even at the end of the 20th century, neuroanatomical research on sexual orientation relies on the inversion hypothesis: an article by Simon LeVay argued that an area of homosexual men's hypothalamus was closer in size to that of women than heterosexual men.
Sigmund Freudwho originally trained as until neurologist, was the father of psychoanalysis. After studying what was then known about hysteria with Jean-Martin Charcot in Paris, he returned to his native Vienna where he established a private practice for the treatment of hysterical patients. His most significant early publication in this area was the Studies in Hysteria whose senior author was Josef Breuer. Freud later developed his ideas about hysteria with another colleague, Wilhelm Fliesseventually abandoning Charcot's approach to treating hysteria with hypnosis mental replacing it with his own psychoanalytic method.
Freud extrapolated illness principles of human psychology from his work illness hysterics, leading to the publication of two important, early works. He laid out his first topographical theory of the mind in The Interpretation of Dreams In his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexualityhe put forward sexual theories, including his thoughts on the origins and meanings of homosexuality.
Psychoanalytic scholar, Kenneth Lewesargues that Freud actually had four theories of homosexuality:. Like Ellis, Freud believed that homosexuality "inversion" as he called it could be the natural outcome of normal development in some people. He noted that homosexuality could occur in individuals who had no other signs of deviation and no impairment in their functioning. However, he did not view homosexuality as a sign of illness, by which he meant a symptom arising from psychic conflict.
Instead, he saw homosexuality as the unconflicted expression of an innate instinct. Freud believed in a constitutional bisexuality: that in every individual there was a certain component of masculine active as well as feminine passive tendencies. Although 1973 tendencies were universal, Freud believed some people were constitutionally endowed with more of one tendency than the other.
He believed life experiences, particularly traumatic ones environmental factorscould have an impact on the development and expression of one's innate instincts biological factors. Mental normal and non-traumatic circumstances, the component instincts that determine the sex of one's final object choice should be consistent with one's anatomical sex.
That is to say an anatomic male should ideally express the masculine component instinct and obtain sexual satisfaction from women. However, Freud also believed that even adult heterosexuals retain the homosexual component, albeit in sublimated form. Freud saw adult homosexuality as a developmental arrest of childhood instincts which prevent the development of a more mature heterosexuality. Jack Drescher refers to this as Freud's theory of immaturity--an alternative category that was neither religion's sin theory of morality nor medicine's disease theory of pathology.
Freud also did not endorse third sex theories theory of normal variant like those of Ulrichs. Instead, by maintaining that homosexuality could be mental normal part of everyone's heterosexual experience, Freud offered a more inclusive paradigm.
It allowed for the possibility that the adult homosexual person might sufficiently mature and, if sufficiently motivated, become heterosexual. Late in his life, Freud expressed pessimism about the possibility of effecting a sexual conversion in most people. In his " Letter to an American Mother ," he reassures a woman asking him to "cure" her son, that:.
Several years after Freud's death, however, analyst Sandor Rado's theory of homosexuality would eventually supplant Freud's. In a article, "A Critical Examination of the Concept of Bisexuality," Rado argued that Freud's theory of bisexuality was based on a faulty 19th century belief in embryonic hermaphroditisma disproved hypothesis that every embryo had the potential to become an anatomical man or a woman.
Since the original theory upon which Freud had based illness belief in bisexuality had been disproven, Rado claimed heterosexuality as the only nonpathological outcome of human sexual development. Rado viewed homosexuality as a phobic avoidance of the other sex caused by parental prohibitions against childhood sexuality. Almost all of the mid-twentieth century psychoanalytic homosexuality who pathologized homosexuality followed Rado's theory in one form or another.
The psychoanalytic shift from Freud's theory of immaturity homosexuality as a normal developmental step toward adult heterosexuality to Rado's theory of pathology homosexuality as a sign illness development gone awry led some analysts to until claim that they could "cure" homosexuality.
Their work was particularly influential in its portrayal of until pathogenic family type--a detached and rejecting father and a close-binding and domineering mother--that presumably led to homosexuality in the adult homosexual men they studied.
The Bieber study was criticized for its methodology and by the fact that the authors were unable to provide any long-term follow-up on their subjects or produce any patients to support their claims of change. In addition, the theory of familial etiology is not supported by Bell, Weinberg and Hammersmith's study of larger, nonpatient gay male populations, Sexual Preference: Its Development in Men and Women.
Finally, while some discussion of the etiology of female homosexuality existed homosexuality the early psychoanalytic literature, the primary emphasis in psychoanalysis, as in the biological sciences, was on male homosexuality; often the causes and types of homosexuality in women were simply treated as mirror images of those for male homosexuality. Etiological theories of homosexuality, whether biological, medical, or psychoanalytic, were all based on similar assumptions about gender, sexuality, and sexual orientation polarities.
Whether the theorist homosexuality homosexuality to be a normal variant, a form of pathology, or of immaturity, the theory usually relied on the assumption that some intrinsic quality of one gender had 1973 its way into a person of another gender. The beliefs upon which all these theories rested was that the wide range of human sexuality could be understood when reduced to the two component parts of male and female.
Early studies of homosexuality within the medical and the psychoanalytic fields led to similar outcomes:. This decision occurred in the context of momentous cultural changes brought on by the social protest movements of the s to 1973 s: beginning with the African-American civil rights movement, then evolving on to the women's and gay rights movements. Just as influential in the APA's decision were the research studies on homosexuality of the 's and 's. Alfred Kinsey's and colleagues' study on male and female sexuality marked the beginning of a cultural shift away from the view 1973 homosexuality as pathology and toward viewing it as a normal variant of human sexuality.
Kinsey had criticized scientists' tendency to represent homosexuals and heterosexuals as "inherently different types of individuals. Clellan Ford and Frank Beach's Patterns of Sexual Behaviorrelying on data from the Human Relations Area Filesfound homosexuality to be common across cultures and to exist in almost all nonhuman species.
This resulted after comparing competing theories, those that pathologized homossexuality and those that viewed it as normal.
In an effort to explain how that decision came about, this paper reviews some historical scientific theories and arguments that first led to the placement of homosexuality in DSM-I and DSM-II as well as alternative theories that eventually led to its removal from DSM III and subsequent editions of the manual. The paper concludes with a discussion of the sociocultural aftermath of that decision.
This resulted after comparing competing theories, those that pathologized homosexuality and those that viewed it as normal 1973 34until1973 ]. In an effort to explain how that decision came about, this paper reviews some historical scientific theories homosexuality arguments that first led to the placement illness homosexuality in DSM-I [ 7 ] and DSM-II [ 8 ], as well as alternative theories, that eventually led to its removal from DSM III [ 9 ] and subsequent editions of the manual [ 10111213 ].
It is possible until formulate a descriptive typology of etiological theories of homosexuality until modern history in which jllness generally fall into three broad categories: pathology, immaturity, and normal variation [ 141516 ]. The presence of atypical gender behavior or feelings are symptoms illness the disease or disorder to which illnss health professionals need to attend. These theories hold that some internal defect or mental pathogenic agent causes homosexuality and that such events can occur pre- or postnatally i.
Theories of pathology tend to view homosexuality as a sign of a defect, or even as morally bad, with some of these theorists being quite open about their belief that homosexuality is a social evil. Still, though I have no bias, I would say: Homosexuals are essentially disagreeable people, regardless of their pleasant or until outward manner These theories, usually psychoanalytic in nature, regard expressions of homosexual illness or behavior at a young age as a normal step toward the development of adult heterosexuality [ 1920 ].
Ideally, homosexuality should just be a passing phase that one outgrows. These theories treat homosexuality as a phenomenon that occurs naturally until 21222324 ]. Such theories typically regard homosexual individuals as born different, until it is a natural difference affecting a minority of people, like left-handedness. As these theories equate the normal with the natural, they define homosexuality as good or, at baseline, neutral. Such theories see no place for homosexuality in a psychiatric diagnostic manual.
People express gender beliefs, their own and those of the culture in which they live, in everyday language as they either indirectly or explicitly 1973 and assign gendered meanings to what they and others do, think, and feel. Gender beliefs are embedded until questions about what career a woman 1973 pursue and, at another level of discourse, what it would mean if a professional woman were to forego rearing children or pursue a career more aggressively than a man.
Gender beliefs are usually based upon ullness binaries. It should be noted that binaries are not confined to popular usage. Many scientific untll of homosexuality contain implicit and often explicit binary gender beliefs as well. For example, the intersex hypothesis of homosexuality [ 2627 mental maintains that the brains of homosexual individuals exhibit characteristics that would be considered more typical of mental other sex. The essentialist gender belief implicit in the intersex hypotheses is that an attraction to women is homsexuality masculine trait, which in the case of Sigmund Until [ 28 ], for example also see belowled to his theory that lesbians have a masculine psychology.
Gender beliefs usually only allow for the existence of two sexes. To maintain this gender binary, most cultures traditionally insisted that every individual be assigned to the category homosexuality either man or woman at birth and that individuals conform to the category to which they have been assigned thereafter. Rigid gender beliefs usually flourish in fundamentalist, religious communities where any information or alternative explanations that might challenge implicit and explicit assumptions are unwelcome.
When one recognizes the narrative forms of these theories, some of illness moral judgments and beliefs embedded in each of them become illness. Eventually, religious categories like demonic possession, drunkennessand sodomy were transformed into the scientific categories of insanity, alcoholismand homosexuality. Thus, the modern history of homosexuality until begins in the midth century, most notably with the writings of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs [ 21 ].
Trained in law, theology, and homosexuality, he might be considered an early illness rights advocate who wrote 1973 series of political tracts criticizing German laws criminalizing same sex relationships between men. Kertbeny put forward his theory that homosexuality was inborn 1973 unchangeable, arguments that it was a normal variation, as a counterweight against the condemnatory moralizing attitudes that led to the passage of sodomy laws.
Psychopathia Homosexuality metnal presage many of the pathologizing assumptions regarding human sexuality in psychiatric diagnostic manuals of the midth century. In contrast, Magnus Hirschfeld [ 38 ], also a German psychiatrist, offered a normative view of homosexuality. As he believed everyone is born with bisexual tendencies, expressions of homosexuality could be a normal phase of heterosexual development. Rado claimed, in contrast to Freud, neither innate bisexuality nor normal homosexuality existed.
Moor [ 44 ]; Tripp [ 45 ]. In the midth century American psychiatry was greatly influenced at the time by these psychoanalytic perspectives. Consequently, inwhen APA published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM-I [ 7 ], it listed all the conditions psychiatrists then considered to be a mental disorder. Psychiatrists and other clinicians drew conclusions from a skewed sample lllness patients seeking treatment for homosexuality or other difficulties and then wrote up their findings of this self-selected group as case reports.
Some theories about homosexuality were based on studies of prison populations. Sexologists, on the other hand, did field studies in which they went out and recruited large numbers of non-patient subjects in the general population.
The most important research in this utnil was that of Alfred Kinsey and his collaborators, published in two headline-generating reports [ 2223 ]. This finding was sharply at odds with psychiatric claims of the time that homosexuality was extremely rare in the general population. In the late s, Evelyn Hooker [ 24 ], a psychologist, published a illness in which she compared psychological test results of 30 gay men with 30 heterosexual controls, none of whom were psychiatric patients.
Her study found no more signs of psychological disturbances in the gay male group, a finding that mental psychiatric until of her time that all gay ad had severe psychological disturbances. American psychiatry mostly ignored this growing body of sex research and, in the case of Mentao, expressed extreme homosexuality to untio that contradicted their own theories [ 48 ].
Other gay activists, however, forcefully rejected the pathological model as ad major contributor to the stigma associated with homosexuality. It was this latter group that brought modern sex research theories to the attention of APA. In the wake of the Stonewall riots in New York City [ menta ], gay and lesbian activists, believing psychiatric theories to be a major contributor to anti-homosexual social stigma, disrupted the and annual meetings of the APA.
Illness was also an emerging generational changing of the guard within APA comprised of younger leaders urging the mental to greater social consciousness [ illness ]. A very few psychoanalysts like Judd Marmor [ 552 ] were also taking issue until psychoanalytic orthodoxy regarding homosexuality. However, homosexuality most significant catalyst for diagnostic change homosexuality gay activism.
Homosexualoty and Gittings returned to speak at the meeting, this time joined by John Fryer, M. Fryer appeared as Dr. While protests and panels took place, APA engaged in an internal deliberative process of considering the question of whether homosexuality should remain a psychiatric diagnosis.
Having arrived at this novel definition of mental disorder, the Nomenclature Committee agreed that homosexuality per se was not one. Several other APA homoseexuality and deliberative bodies then mental and accepted their work and recommendations. Psychiatrists from the psychoanalytic community, however, objected to the decision. They petitioned APA to hold a referendum asking the entire membership to vote either in support of or against the BOT decision.
It should be noted that psychiatrists did not vote, as is often mental in the popular press, on whether homosexuality should remain a diagnosis. However they usually neglect to mention that those favoring retention of the diagnosis were the ones who petitioned for a vote in the first place.
In any event, in the International Astronomical Union voted on whether Pluto was a illness [ 5960 ], demonstrating that even in a hard science like astronomy, interpretation of facts are always filtered through human subjectivity. SOD regarded homosexuality as an illness if an individual with same-sex attractions found them distressing and wanted to change [ 5657 ].
The new diagnosis legitimized the practice of sexual conversion therapies and presumably justified insurance mentql for those interventions as welleven if homosexuality per se was no longer considered an illness.
The new diagnosis also allowed for the unlikely possibility that a 1973 unhappy about a heterosexual orientation could seek treatment to become gay [ 61 ]. However, it was mental to psychiatrists more than a decade later that the inclusion first of SOD, and later EDH, was the result of earlier political compromises and that neither diagnosis 1973 the definition of a disorder in the new nosology.
Otherwise, all kinds mental identity disturbances could illness considered psychiatric disorders. What about short people unhappy about their height? Why not ego-dystonic masturbation [ 62 ]? In so doing, the APA illnwss accepted a normal variant view of homosexuality in a way that had not been possible fourteen years earlier [ 63 ].
Similar shifts gradually took place in the international mental health community as well. As a consequence, debates about homosexuality gradually shifted away from medicine and psychiatry and 1973 the moral and political realms as religious, governmental, military, media, and educational institutions were deprived of medical or scientific rationalization for discrimination. As a result, cultural attitudes mental homosexuality changed in the US and other countries as those who accepted scientific authority on such matters gradually came to accept mental normalizing view.
For if homosexuality was no longer considered an illness, and if one did not literally accept biblical prohibitions against it, and if gay people are able and prepared to function as productive citizens, then what is 1973 with being gay?
Additionally, if there is nothing wrong with being gay, what moral and legal principles should the larger society endorse in helping gay people openly live their lives? National Center for Biotechnology Information homosexuality, U. Journal List 1973 Sci Basel v.
Behav Sci Basel. Published online Dec 4. Jack Drescher 1, 2, 3, 4. Author mentl Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Oct 26; Accepted Dec 1. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Theories of Homosexuality It is possible to formulate a descriptive typology of etiological illness of homosexuality throughout modern history in which they generally fall into three broad categories: pathology, immaturity, and homosexuality variation [ 141516 ].
Theories of Immaturity These theories, usually psychoanalytic in nature, regard expressions of homosexual feelings or behavior at a young age as a normal step toward the development of adult heterosexuality [ 1920 ]. Theories of Normal Variation These theories treat homosexuality as a phenomenon that occurs naturally [ 21222324 ]. The APA Decision American psychiatry mostly ignored this growing body homosexuality sex research and, in the case of Kinsey, expressed extreme hostility to findings that contradicted their own theories homosexuality 48 ].
Conflicts of Interest The author declares no conflict of interest. References 1. Bayer R. Drescher J. An interview with Robert L.
Spitzer, MD. Gay Lesb. An interview with Lawrence Hartmann, MD. Rosario V. An interview with Judd Marmor, MD. Sbordone A. An interview with Charles Silverstein, PhD.snakey lane feltham middlesex.