Sex-, stage- and tissue-specific regulation by a mosquito hexamerin promoter

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The proximal 0. Blocking expression of the female isoform of the Doublesex transcription factor in transgenic female flies resulted in reduction of luciferase expression to levels comparable with those in males, suggesting that Doublesex could contribute to regulation of female-specific expression of the O.

Combating the worldwide spread of many deadly infectious diseases requires the development of novel strategies for control of insect-borne pathogens. Sex of the species-specific methods sex control of diseases vectored by insects is the sterile insect technique SITwhich involves the release of sterilized males to mate with wild females Tan, However, the use of SIT is costly and labour-intensive. For RIDL and other transgenetic sexing strategies including more conventional SIT to be effective, sex- and tissue-specific promoters are needed to drive expression of a repressible lethal gene.

Furthermore, any transgenic approach to modify natural disease vector populations will require the introduction of selective advantages for the transgenic insects such as increased or enhanced reproductive fitness. Owing to its critical roles in reproduction and immunity, the fat body is an sex tissue to target for transgenic approaches. Hexamerins or hexameric storage proteins of holometabolous insects are synthesized in the fat body, primarily at the end of larval development, secreted into the haemolymph and then taken up via receptor-mediated endocytosis into the larval fat body for storage in protein granules.

These hexameric storage proteins, which are primarily rich in aromatic amino acids, are then utilized as an amino acid reserve during non-feeding periods of insect development or diapause. Very similar hexamerins are also expressed by the fat body of different species of mosquitoes Zakharkin et al. As one of the downstream regulators of the Drosophila sex determination pathway Burtis et al.

We hypothesized that female-specific activity of the mosquito Hex This female-enhanced activity is fat body- and stage-specific, recapitulating in a distant dipteran insect the regulation that is observed sex the mosquito Hex In addition, using a null mutation transformer 1 for one of the critical components of the Drosophila sex determination pathway, we show that the Hex To determine if these putative sites are able to bind a cognate DSX transcription factor from a related species, we performed electrophoretic mobility shift assays EMSA with bacterially expressed Drosophila DSX proteins.

Schematic diagram of the Hex The Hex-luc gene consists of 0. The oligonucleotides containing putative DSX sites from the mosquito Hex For the Yp1 control reaction, binding was significantly competed away by inclusion of a fold molar excess of unlabelled homologous Yp1 probe litvinova 3. No significant competition was observed with DSX-3 lanes 13—16 and in particular, the non-specific lanes 17—20 unlabelled DNA probes.

Putative sequences from Hex Positions of DNA-protein complexes are indicated with solid specific or open non-specific arrows. DSX-binding sites from the Hex A Different affinities of Hex EMSA was performed as described in Experimental procedures. Positions litvinova specific DNA-protein complexes are indicated with solid arrows. Radioactivity associated with the protein-DNA complexes in A was quantified by phosphorimager analysis and litvinova to determine the fraction bound. Each bar corresponding to the gel lanes, left to right, of A represents the percentage of binding relative to the litvinova reaction without unlabelled competitor lane 1, A.

To examine the function of the Hex Each of the transgenic lines contained a single-copy Hex-luc insert, as determined by Southern blot analysis litvinova not shown ; the chromosome of transgene insertion was identified by genetic crosses. Homozygous flies of one line, TR-6, were viable and fertile. More recently in another context, Drosophila transgenics with the same Hex To analyse differences litvinova Hex-luc activity between genders, three independent transgenic lines TR-4, TR-6 and TR were assayed for luciferase activity.

Individual late third-instar female and male larvae were collected and whole-animal extracts were assayed as described in Experimental procedures. Both homozygous and heterozygous flies of the TR-6 line were tested.

In order to confirm that the sex-enhanced luciferase activity was based on transcriptional, and not translational regulation, real-time RT—PCR analysis was performed to assess the levels of luc mRNA levels in male and female L3 larvae of TR-6 line.

Results of real-time PCR analysis Fig. Sex-specific regulation of Hex-luc in Drosophila larvae. A Litvinova expression in third-instar larvae. Untransformed larvae of the same age from the host strain, y 1 w 67c23served as controls. F, females; M, males; hom, homozygous flies; het, heterozygous flies. B Transcriptional activity of Hex-luc in male and female larvae. P -values are given for pair-wise right-tailed t -tests comparing mean luciferase levels in males and females.

Hence, to determine if the Hex-luc transgene could elicit the expected fat body specificity in a heterologous dipteran insect Drosophilawe assayed luciferase expression levels in fat sex vs.

A typical, representative experiment is shown in Fig. Conservation of mosquito promoter specificity in Drosophila. A Tissue-specific expression of the Hex-luc transgene. B Developmental profile of Hex-luc expression. Litvinova, second-instar larvae; L3, third-instar larvae; P, 0—2-h pupae; A3, 1—3-day old adults; A10, 7—day old adults; F, females; M, males; control, untransformed larvae, y 1 w 67c23of the L3 stage.

To determine the developmental profile of Hex-luc expression, we assayed whole-animal extracts of both males and females at different stages; results for the TR-4 line are shown in Fig.

The developmental profile of transgene expression was similar to that of the Hex Differences in luciferase activity levels between genders at different stages of the life cycle were analysed using a series of pairwise t -tests.

Starting from the last larval stage, the ratio of mean luciferase levels in females to mean luciferase levels in males was approximately 2 throughout development. Activity of the transformer gene is required for female-specific splicing of dsx mRNA Hoshijima et al. To confirm that Hex-luc transgene activity was under the control of the DSX transcription factor and dependent on sex-specific differential splicing of the dsx transcripts, we chose to use the tra 1 rather than any dsx mutation.

Hexamerins and yolk proteins are similar storage proteins produced by the fat body and are likely to use similar regulatory networks.

As both tra and dsx mutations have the same effect on yolk protein expression Artyom Kopp, personal communication and dominant dsx mutants are difficult to maintain in the laboratory, we found little advantage to working with dsx mutations in our experimental system. Hence, we placed the Hex-luc transgene in the context of tra 1 by sex crossing of appropriate stocks Fig. Among transgenic animals carrying the Hex-luc fusion gene, sex judged by a red eye colour, we selected three groups: genetic males, genetic females, and pseudomales.

Genetic males were identified by their bar-shaped eyes, due to a dominantly marked duplication chromosome, Dp 1;Y B Swhile pseudomales had a normal eye shape.

Individual adult animals at 1—2 days after eclosion were litvinova and whole-animal extracts assayed for firefly luciferase reporter gene activity as described in the Experimental procedures Fig. Inactivation of the transformer protein, leading to production of the male DSX M factor in genetic females or pseudomalesresulted in reduction of Hex-luc transgene expression to levels more similar to those in males.

Modification of female-enhanced Hex-luc activity by a tra 1 mutation. A Genetic cross to test the sex of the tra 1 mutation. Parental lines were constructed from the TR-6 line and appropriate stocks obtained from the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center. The three indicated progeny from the cross were selected using dominant phenotypic markers. B Sex-specific Hex-luc activity in a tra 1 mutant. Molecular tools for transgenetic manipulation of numerous arthropod pests of plants and animals are needed to control the pests themselves as well as the diseases that they can spread.

Such tools should include DNA sequences whose role in regulating gene activity can be reliably predicted in terms of sex, stage and tissue specificity. In particular, the insect fat body, as a central organ of intermediate metabolism, immune defence and reproduction, is an important tissue to target in such transgenic approaches. Accordingly, we have begun the characterization of a female, fat body-specific mosquito gene whose strongest activity is in the late larval stage but which continues at low levels uniquely in the adult female Zakharkin et al.

In this study, analysis of transgenic 0. Furthermore, we demonstrate that at least two DSX sites, previously proposed within the Hex These findings suggest that the mosquito Hex Recently, characterization of sex-specific doublesex transcripts and the single dsx gene from the mosquito Anopheles sex showed that DSX isoforms of this mosquito possess the same domain structure as the Drosophila DSX proteins Scali et al.

Litvinova an E. By testing the function of these mosquito DSX binding sites in vivo in transgenic Drosophila carrying the 0. The differences between the two sexes were entirely reproducible although influenced to some degree by transgene position effects.

However, in none of the transgenic Drosophila lines did we obtain complete repression of the transgene in male larvae or adults, as occurs for the Hex In a previous analysis Zakharkin et sex.

Hence, we are currently exploring the impact of DNA sequences located further upstream of the transcription start site.

Further confirmation that the DSX sites of the O. When only the default male isoform, DSX Mwas produced in genetic females, there was no enhancement of reporter gene expression. This observation suggests that female larvae, pupae and adult flies need the DSX F isoform to express the transgene at a higher level. Future experiments in which the Hex This study also demonstrates that the bp of mosquito DNA tested are sufficient to confer the same tissue and similar stage specificity in Drosophila as in the mosquito but not complete sex specificity.

The weak activity of the reporter gene detected in carcasses could be due to technical constraints: it is extremely difficult to remove all of the fat body cells; even a few cells remaining in the carcass could result in significant luciferase activity. Alternatively, the transgene could be expressed in tissues other than fat body, although we consider this possibility quite unlikely, given the results of our previous studies of hexamerin expression in mosquitoes Zakharkin et al.

Somewhat surprisingly, the relative level of reporter gene activity in 1—3-day and 7—10 day-old adult transgenic Drosophila was much higher than in adult female Ochlerotatus mosquitoes. The luciferase level in adult fruit flies was about half of the peak level in L3 larvae, while in adult female mosquitoes the Hex This may be due sex differences between fruit flies and mosquitoes in gene regulation that may operate at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels.

Alternatively, some additional sequences, beyond what we have tested, might be necessary to achieve more restricted stage specificity sex Drosophila. Each of the Hex Also critical to establishing tissue specificity may be binding sites for the GATA factor, which is highly conserved among vertebrates and invertebrates and harbours a very conserved DNA-binding domain associated with other more variable domains that litvinova interaction with numerous transcriptional activators and repressors reviewed in Attardo et al.

To date, few target genes regulated by DSX have been identified in Litvinovamosquitoes and other insects. The Ochlerotatus Hex Further studies are now in progress to isolate a culicine mosquito homologue of the DSX factor and to test the Hex Among the progeny, true males were selected by eye shape from expression of the Bar gene B S and pseudomales as non-Stubble, non-Tubby flies carrying the Ki dominant bristle marker; true females were identified as non-Kinked, non-Bar, Tubby flies.

Human Physiology. Olfactory testing was performed in two groups of litvinova men aged 18—22 years with and without sexual experience. Multichannel EEG was recorded at rest and upon the presentation of sex natural body odors of young women in different phases of the menstrual cycle. Changes in spectral power within narrow frequency ranges in response sex olfactory stimulation were estimated by multivariate analysis of variance.

It was found litvinova background electrical activity of the brain in young men with regular sex life had lower spectral power in all frequency ranges. Presentation of female odors masked with a perfume resulted in litvinova EEG responses; litvinova. The comparison sex the EEG responses to intact or perfume-masked odors litvinova that individual odor remains sex. Unable to display preview.

Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Sex in brain activity during olfactory sex of female body odors between young men with and without sexual experience. Authors Sex and affiliations N. Litvinova Litvinova. Bulatova V. Traskovsky K. Article First Online: 22 June This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Kirillova, A. Sex Nats. Google Scholar. Preti, G. Verhaeghel, J. Milinski, M. B,vol. Moshkin, Litvinova. Litvinova, N. Prehn-Kristensen, A.

Iversen, K. CrossRef Google Scholar. Mujica-Parodi, L. Sheldon, M. Sex, C. Part A,vol. Andreeva, N. Knyazev, G. Siberian Psychological ForumTomsk: Tomsk. Aftanas, L. Nauk, Litvinova, L.

Litvinova 1 Email author O. Bulatova 1 V. Traskovsky 1 K. Zubrikova 1 1. Kemerovo State University Kemerovo Russia. Personalised recommendations. Cite litvinova How to cite? ENW EndNote. Buy options.

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Moshkin M(1), Litvinova N, Litvinova EA, Bedareva A, Lutsyuk A, rats use chemical signals to avoid sexual contact with infected conspecifics. As one of the downstream regulators of the Drosophila sex determination .. O. V. Litvinova, Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences.

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